Skip to main content

Full text of "A guide to the reading and study of the Holy Scriptures /"

See other formats










#o!p &tti9tutt#, 




Translated from tlie LatirL, 


Distinct Notations of some of (be best editions of the 


And a copious but select List of the 





^ " Franek's Gr,ide deserves to be often read. It contains the best Rules 
for studying the Scriptures that I ever remember to have seen." Dfr. 

}>oddridge.— Lectures on Preaching. 




JVV 255, Market Stt 

j <3° i 





The Translator's Preface . . . . vii 

Introduction . 17 

Of Reading as it respects the Letter 

of the Scriptures 19 

Grammatical Reading ...... ib. 

Historical Reading 43 

Analytical Reading 53 

Of Reading as it respects the SriRiT of 

the Word * 63 

Expository Reading ib. 

Doctrinal Reading 87 

Inferential Reading 92 

Practical Reading Ill 

Of the Order of Studying the Scriptures 117 

Appendix 121 

Treatise on the Affections . . . 123 
Analysis of the Epistle to the Ephe- 

sians 149 

Analytical Introduction to the Epistle 

to the Colossians . . . • . 161 

THa Translator's Notes 179 

\ 2 



Of all the volumes that have engaged the 
attention of the human mind, there is no 
point of view in which the Bible is not infi- 
nitely pre-eminent. Whatever constitutes ex- 
cellency in writing, whatever has diffused a 
partial beauty over the productions of men, 
whatever conspires to expand the intellect or 
interest of the heart, shines forth in the sa- 
cred pages with transcendent lustre; while it 
commends itself to our notice by another, a 
triumphant consideration, — " it is able to 
make us wise unto Salvation." — In the prac- 
tical study of this blessed Book, thousands 
have found an exhaustless source of spiritual 
and intellectual enjoyment ; and they have 
invariably been compelled to acknowledge 

\m THE TKANb), A. 1 OR*S PftEF A 

and admire, with an eminent divine,* that 
«« the most learned, acute, and diligent stu- 
dent, cannot, in the longest life, obtain an 
entire knowledge of this one Volume ; be- 
cause, the more deeply he works the mine, 
the richer and more abundant he finds the 
ore.'' — To encourage and assist in the pro- 
secution of this sublime study, is the imme- 
diate object of the present work. It is the 
last result of deep piety, and profound learn- 
ing, united in a man who was peculiarly 
called to the study of Holy Writ ; and « it 
contains," says Dr. Doddridge, (no common 
judge,)—" the best rules for studying the 
Scriptures, that I evkr remember to have 
seen.' 5 

The publication of a treatise so highly and 
yet so worthily recommended, cannot but be 
gratifying to the biblical student ; and, in the 
present state of sacred literature, it promises 
to be as seasonable as beneficial. It certainly 
is a culpable deficiency, that, at a time when 
so much is done so well to elucidate Scripture 
in the way of Comment and Exposition, there 
is scarcely one popular work, whose immedi- 

• Th<? P<*r. Thomas Scotl 


ate object is to excite and assist learners, to 
study the sacred text for themselves. Whe- 
ther this fact be not indicative of one more 
serious, and whether the lively Oracles be not 
studied too generally through the medium of 
human expositions, the reader must deter- 
mine for himself: but none surely will con- 
tend, that such a practice is not a solecism 
iu divinity $ and none who reflect, with Mr. 
Locke, that " the understanding is always 
desirous to obtain presently the knowledge it 
is about, and then set upon some new inquiry; 
and, on that account, often contents itself with 
improper ways of search ; M will hesitate to 
admit, as a consequence, that the young di- 
vine is eminently exposed to commit this er- 
ror: and that our author's work, independ- 
ently of its internal claims, makes a valid ap- 
peal to the reader's attention, as a seasonable 

The importance of cultivating an acquain- 
tance with the sacred languages, will doubt- 
less render the Chapter on Grammatical 

* See the latter part of a Review of the First Edition of 
this Work, in the Christian Observer for Dec. 1814, where 
the above observation is strongly confirmed. 

3l f HE Tit 

Reading peculiarly useful and acceptable ; 
as it furnishes a complete series of excellent 
rules for the attainment of the Greek, He- 
brew, and Chaldee : and it is hoped that, by 
the perusal of it, many will be incited to stu- 
dy the Original Scripture*. The mode of 
teaching which our author so justly censures 
as discouraging and tedious, and which en- 
joins a considerable knowledge, of the gram- 
mar, before the language it&elf can be at- 
tempted, has given to the stitfly, a most for- 
bidding aspect : but, if the unlearned reader 
inspect the Professor's plai, he will find lit- 
tle to deter, and much to encourage him. 
Should therefore any who have acquired their 
skill in languages by different methods, con- 
sider this too easy to be true, and advise the 
unwary student « to turn out of his way in a 
well-beaten track ;" it will be fair to remem- 
ber that our authors rules are not only the 
professed fruit of practical inquiry, but that 
they evince their worth by the success with 
which they were attended, when he occupied 
the chair of Professor of Languages in the 
University of Halle. 

When it is considered with what facility 
this inestimable attainment mav be made, awl 


the happy consequences which, in every view, 
must result from it, one cannot but impute it 
to ignorance or to culpable indifference, that 
it does not more generally constitute an ob- 
ject of attention in the education of youth. 
The period usually allotted to the acquisition 
of knowledge, would afford ample opportuni- 
ties for this study, without interfering with 
other duties. That those indeed with whom 
matchless excellencies cannot atone for evan- 
gelical truth, should treat the Word of God 
with neglect, is a fact at which we have long 
ceased to wonder ; but the Christian parent 
should interpose with regard to his own off- 
spring, and instead of appropriating their 
time to difficult languages and sciences, in 
which nothing but a course of application 
unusually long, can render them even tolera- 
able proficients, he should consecrate at least 
a part, to the easier and more important stu- 
dy of the Original Scriptures. 5 '* 

* " That time and pains which youth commonly spend on 
a language of such real difficulty as the Latin, might, with the 
assistance of proper Grammars and Lexicons, be abundantly 
sufficient for their instruction in the Hebrew of the Old, and 
in the Greek of the New Testament : and might enable them 
to read in their original purity, those Divine Writings, on 


It is possible that the superficial reader, 
taking his estimate of the following treatise 
in the abstract, and not in its practical ap- 
plication, may deem it deficient in that spiri- 
tuality which is so eminently conspicuous in 
the Professor's other works : but, besides 
that the opinions of Doctors Doddridge and 
Allix, might well induce "the many," to he- 
sitate; every judicious person must be satis- 
fied that the contrary is the fact. It is suffi- 
cient to say with respect to Part I. which 
treats of the Letter of Scripture, that this is al- 
ways considered in subordination to the Spirit 
of the Word ; and that the student is continu- 
ally admonished to devotefto it no more of his 
time than it absolutely requires: and a refe- 
rence to the concluding chapter of the work — 
«f On the order of studying the Holy Scrip- 
tures,"— will show that an attention to the 
Letter fwhich naturally comes first to be no- 
ticed) is, at no time, to preclude the study of 
the Sacred Volume in a spiritual way. The 
Second Part certainly is replete with spiri- 

vhieh their profession as Protestants, and what is yet of 
greater moment, their faith and hope as Christians, are found- 
cd."— Pahkhubst. 


tuality. They, however, who expect that a 
series of Rules will, in thefnselves, be fraught 
with unction, do not think correctly. We 
might, with more appearance of reason, ob- 
ject to an excellent book of Logic, which 
aids us in our inquiries after truth, that its 
abstract rules are meagre and jejune ; than 
condemn the present work (which would lead 
our minds to the beatific vision of truths di- 
vine,) on the grounds in question. 

It now remains, to offer a few remarks in 
reference to those points for which the Editor 
is more immediately responsible. In giving 
a Translation of the work, it has, of course, 
been his object to apprehend fully his author's 
ideas, and deliver them in perspicuous, appro- 
priate language. Independently, however, 
of this, a part of his time and attention has 
been employed in divesting the Treatise of 
its scholastic stiffness, without sacrificing 
the advantages of methodical arrangement; 
and in simplifying, as much as possible, the 
technical phrases which abound in the origi- 
nal work. 

The most material part of his labour, how- 
ever, will be found in the Notes. It was im- 


mediately obvious, that these were highly 
necessary, because the works which our Au- 
thor has recommended, have, in many in- 
stances, become scarce, and, in others, are 
superseded. Besides, it « is of vast advan- 
tage," says Dr. Watts, « for the improve- 
ment of knowledge and saving time, for a 
young man to have the most proper books 
for his reading recommended 5" nor is it a 
matter of inferior consequence to theological 
students, to have correct Editions of works 
generally, and of the Original Scriptures in 
particular, ascertained. — To afford informa- 
tion on these important points is the chief 
scope of the Translator's Notes ; and in or- 
der to render the student's path certain as well 
as easy, almost every book has annexed to it, 
the name, and frequently the criticisms of 
some standard writer who has recommended 
it. To enumerate the various works which 
have been consulted on the occasion, must be 
unnecessary ; the reader will however see that 
to Dr. Doddridge's Preaching Lectures, Dr. 
Williams' Appendix to the Christian Preach- 
er, and to Dr. A. Clarke's Preface to* his 
Bible, his Bibliographical Dictionary, and 


Concise View, the Notes are much in- 

In conclusion, the Translator would ob- 
serve, that he has laboured to make the work 
as complete and useful as possible ; though 
he does not presume to hope, but that, in se- 
veral respects, he may appear deficient, 
" Whoever has edited a work, well knows 
how many causes of error may operate, not 
only independently of himself, but in spite of 
all his exertions, " 

May, 1815. 

% <®U3®>® 




JL HE methods which those who read the 
Scriptures prescribe to themselves, and 
the motives by whicli they are influenced, are 
equally various : hence, as they do not adopt 
the same measures, so they derive not from 
their labours the same advantages. All Read- 
ing, however, respects either the letter or 
the spirit of the Inspired Writings. Sepa- 
rate from the latter, the former is empty and 
inconsistent; but when both are united, the 
study of Divinity is rendered complete. 


Reading, as it respects the letter of 
Scripture, divides itself into three branches : 
Grammatical, Historical, and Analy- 
tical. As it respects the spirit of the 
Word, it comprehends four: Expository, 
Doctrinal, Inferential, and Practi- 





Grammatical Reading relates to the Greek of 
the New, and the Hebrew and Chaldee of the Old 
Testament; and requires that their Etymology, Sig- 
nification, Syntax, and Idiom, be fully understood: lest 
the false senses which are consequent on translations, 
and on an imperfect acquaintance with these languages, 
should be incautiously attributed to the Inspired Pen- 

This branch of Scripture Reading embraces four 

I. The Analysis and Grammatical Interpretation 
of Greek and Hebrew Words: connected with which 
are Etymology, Signification, and, in part, Syntax. 

71. An accurate Examination of Idiom. 


III. A Knowledge of the Chaldee Tongue. 

IV. An Acquaintance with the Rabbinical Wri- 
tings; which are considered to follow more immediate- 
ly the Grammatical Reading of the Scriptures. 

I. Of Analysis and Interpretation. 

In treating of the Anal) r sis and Grammatical Inter- 
pretation of words, it will be requisite to notice dis- 
tinctly the Greek and Hebrew tongues. 

The Greek language, with us, is not to be studied 
as it would be by the professed Grammarian ; but sim- 
ply with a view to Divinity and the New Testament: 
though, certainly, a student may profitably cultivate a 
larger acquaintance with it afterwards, provided the 
Hebrew and other necessary studies be not neglected. 
So much of it, however, as is really essential, may be ea- 
sily acquiredby attending to the following observations : 

The first seven chapters of St. Matthew's gospel 
should be read with an accurate, collated version (as 
that of Beza or Erasmus,) until the learner be able 
to translate the Greek text, without difficulty, into his 
own, or any other language- (a) He ought not, how- 
ever, in this, his first attempt, to be anxious to com- 
prehend all the principles of grammatical construc- 
tion: nor, on account of partial ignorance in this par- 
ticular, should he forego the improvement which must 


ever attend a frequent translating of the text. Yet, 
in order that no delay may be occasioned through a 
want of some acquaintance with the grammar, it will 
be proper to read and review frequently, the para- 
digms of the declensions and conjugations, with other 
grammatical rudiments; and thus gradually impress 
them on the mind. When the study of these accom- 
panies a perusal of the seven chapters, theory and 
practice mutually assist each other. It remains, not- 
withstanding, to devote more time to the latter, than 
to the former; to reading the New Testament, than 
to studying the grammar. Practice may prove a sub- 
stitute for theory; but theory can avail nothing with- 
out practice. 

When the seven chapters in question have been 
thoroughly studied, and the requisite paradigms are 
familiarized, the New Testament should be read 
through in its natural order, with a collated and ac- 
curate version: and the signification and grammatical 
nature of words, may be sought in Pasor's larger Lex- 
icon, (b) The student should impress the significa- 
tions of words on his memory, by writing them, or by 
repeatedly reading the chapters; accordingly as he 
may deem either method better adapted to his genius. 
I have, however, uniformly observed, that \o ivrite 
the significations of words, is the more successful 

Students should remark, that this reading is not to 


be prosecuted in an irregular and inconstant manner. 
Other pursuits must submit to a temporary, or at least, 
partial cessation, lest they obliterate what has been 
learned; and lest a distaste for this should be ac- 
quired; when long continued labours are not accom- 
panied with that improvement, with which they would, 
in the course of a few weeks, be otherwise attended. 
Words which are continually recurring under different 
forms and various combinations, are, without much 
difficulty, impressed on the mind. It is therefore a 
judicious distribution of time, to allot a stated period 
to the study of a language, and remit, during that 
term, every other pursuit. — It is proper to remark 
here, that every one should take into consideration, 
his time, his opportunities, his genius, &c. ; and not 
prematurely draw conclusions unfavourable to himself, 
from comparing his own method and progress with 
those of others; while he perhaps enjoys, in a higher 
degree ; the means of acquiring other branches of this 
study, equally useful and important. 

The New Testament being perused in the manner 
prescribed, and in as short a period as possible, it 
should undergo a second reading. A student of Di- 
vinity could scarcely be so dull as not to gain, in this 
way, a grammatical acquaintance with the new Tes- 
tament, within three months. 

In acquiring a knowledge of the Greek Tongue, as 
well as preserving it when attained, it will prove of 


considerable advantage, if the learner accustom him- 
self to carry a Pocket Edition of the Greek Testa- 
ment about with him; and, when any text is propound- 
ed either in public or private, to search it out imme- 
diately, and collate the original with it. By means 
of this excellent practice, a habit is likewise formed 
of accurately reading and # examining the original 
Scriptures, (c) 

Provided the ends proposed be effectually attained, 
it can be of little consequence, however, what plan is 
adopted. Hence, we are not authorized to assert that 
the modes pursued by others have no foundation in 
reason, or that they would not prove useful to our- 
selves. Minds are diverse; and the same methods 
are not equally adapted to every capacity. I have 
recommended the plan which, according to my views 
and experience, is best suited to the genius of all. 

If, for instance, instead of taking the first seven 
chapters of Matthew, a student should choose rather 
to select some easy Epistle, as John, Timothy, Ti- 
tus, &c. and, then, proceed regularly through the 
Testament; or should he habituate himself to read 
the sacred pages with more care than has been en- 
joined, so as perfectly to understand and familiarize 
one thing, before he proceed to another: or were he, 
agreeably to the advice of Lubinus, to make use of 
that writer's interlineary version ; — in the adoption of 
any one of these schemes, the learner might, very pos- 


sibly, be making a wise election. Again, it is a mea- 
sure which may, perhaps, be attended with success, 
provided the student be endued with a happy memory, 
to learn Leusden's Compendium of the New Testa- 
ment; or to study the verses which, in that author's 
Testament, are distinguished by an asterisk, and 
which comprise all the words used by the Sacred 
Writers; before he takes up the New Testament it- 
self. Let not any learner, however, be guided by his 
own judgment, either in adopting or rejecting a me- 
thod ; but rather submit to the decision of a judicious 
tutor or friend. In conclusion, I would, nevertheless, 
observe, that experience has repeatedly and fully 
shewn the excellency of the plan at first prescribed; 
and no person will ever have reason to lament that he 
gave that plan his preference, (d) 

It is not impossible, but that some of our readers 
may wish to devote more time and attention to the 
study of the Greek language : and there are still ex- 
tant several works which throw considerable light on 
Theology; and, at the same time, resemble the New 
Testament in point of style. Of this character, are 
the Epistles of Clemens Romanus (supposed to be the 
Clement mentioned Phil. iv. 3.,) addressed to the 
Corinthian church, which breathe the wisdom of pri- 
mitive days: the Epistles of Barnabas, and those of 
Ignatius; which, considered generally, are not unwor- 
thy of the soundness and gravity of the first aires of 


the church. Next to these, we may notice the 
Apologies of Justin Martyr and Athenagoras; and 
the Homilies of Macarius, which are composed in an 
easy and perspicuous style. It is indeed to be wished, 
that works of this complexion were more frequently 
in the hands of the studious; especially those which 
were written immediately after the earlier days of the 
Christian church. Such reading has a tendency to 
impress on the mind, the image of pure and undefiled 
Christianity, even though prosecuted with primary re- 
ference to some other object, (e) 

In addition to these works, may be mentioned the 
Septuagint, and the Apocrypha, among the books of 
which, that of Wisdom stands conspicuous. Euse- 
bius' Ecclesiastical History, embracing a per;od of 
six hundred years, may follow in order after those last 
noticed: and, from this work- the transition to the 
best Greek fathers, as Chrysosrom, Basil, he: will 
be extremely easy. All these productions may be so 
read, as to afford lasting profit.— Michael Neander 
has published several books, in pursuance of this plan: 
as " Patrum Sentential ;" " Apocrypha Novi Testa- 
" menti;" &c. The " Spicilegium Patrum" of 
Grabe, will also merit the reader's attention, (f) 

I would here repeat an observation which has al- 
ready been made, that this volume is not intended for 
the professed grammarian, but solely for them who 
purpose to devote their time and attention to the study 


of the Sacred Oracles. That such persons should 
toil through the numerous works of profane writers, 
would be, in every respect, injudicious. 

In closing these remarks on the Greek of the New 
Testament, and on the writings of the Fathers, &c. 
I would observe in reference to the latter, that, in 
whatever terms I may have recommended them to the 
notice of those who are studying the language, their 
authority is, at present, out of the question. On this 
subject, the reader may consult the " Critica Sacra" 
of Rivet; the " Censura Patrum" of Cocus; and 
Pearson's " Vindiciae Epistolarum Ignatii." The 
point for our consideration was the Greek tongue, so 
far as it is connected with Divinity; and, in this 
view, no one surely will deny, that it must prove emi- 
nently beneficial to students, if they read these works ; 
on the same principles that it is useful to peruse the 
Apocrypha appended to the Old Testament, (g) 

The Hebrew language next claims our attention. 
In studying this, it is not, in my opinion, advisable to 
connect it with the Greek; for when a student has ac- 
quired the latter in a short period, he will naturally 
engage in learning the other with more ardour and sa- 
tisfaction. However, such is the disposition of some, 
and particularly of young persons, that, when required 
to study for any length of time, they become dull and 
inactive. On this account it may, sometimes, be pru- 
dent, to unite the. Latin with the Greek, or the Greek 


with the Hebrew; and to divide the attention, so as 
to appropriate the morning to the more difficult, and 
the afternoon to the more easy language. This prac- 
tice cannot, however, be recommended, when an affi- 
nity exists between the tongues studied, as it would 
then introduce confusion. 

If it be thought that the Hebrew claims precedence 
of the Greek, in point of order, I do not decidedly op- 
pose the position; nor need a learner be discouraged 
from adopting it, by adverting to the popular method 
of teaching, in the order of Latin, Greek, and He- 
brew, Some there are who entirely reverse the se- 
ries; neither does this arrangement want the support 
of reason, or the sanction of success. 

Whatever plan the reader determine to adopt, let- 
it be his primary care, to attend to things really es- 
sential in preference to those of inferior moment. 
It is indeed much to be wished, that this admonition 
were more deeply impressed on the minds of students, 
because the observance of it, in any branch of learn- 
ing, would invariably ensure advancement. 

The method which I shall propose for acquiring 
the Hebrew language, resembles that prescribed for 
the Greek. The first four chapters of Genesis should 
be studied and collated with an accurate version, until 
the learner be capable of rendering the Hebrew text 
into his vernacular idiom, without the aid of a trans- 
lation, — The versions of Junius and Tremellius me- 


rit a preference; and this is likewise due to the ver* 
sion of the first four chapters of Genesis, prefixed by 
Opitius to his Atrium. That of Genesis by Pagni- 
nus, enriched with short annotations, and accompa- 
nied with the Hebrew text, will prove useful to be- 
ginners. (It) 

It will next be proper to commit to memory some ru- 
diments of the grammar, so as to enable the learner to 
know what are prefixes and affixes, as well as the more 
necessary paradigms. (?) More time must, however, 
be allotted to reading the text itself, than to studying 
the grammar; which will undoubtedly be attained with 
greater facility and pleasure, when the language is 
become, in some measure, familiarized. Experience 
has repeatedly and clearly evinced, to the conviction 
of many besides myself, that, in the course ofr only 
four days, these chapters maybe perfectly known; so 
known, as that the student shall be able to translate 
the text into another language; to ascertain the roots 
and their signification; and to separate from them the 
prefixes and affixes with which they stand connected. 
The great assistance which this must afford in a se- 
cond reading, is very evident. Surely, a week so em- 
ployed, is calculated to improve a learner more than 
three months spent over the grammar, and in the 
practice of analyzing alone; through a dislike to which, 
many persons have totally given up the study of the 
Hebrew tongue. 


A good Tutor will, at this juncture, prove emi* 
nently useful, in order to deliver to the pupil, in a 
concise and perspicuous summary, such grammatical 
rudiments as he may consider essential. They who 
do not enjoy this privilege, must avail themselves of 
. those works which h^ve been drawn up to supply the 
deficiency. Such are the Analysis of the first chap- 
ters of Genesis, annexed by Opitius to his Atrium; 
and the Hebrew Lexicon of the same celebrated man, 
written for the use of beginners, after the plan of 
Schrevelius'. Besides these, we should notice Bal- 
dovius' Analysis of Genesis, accommodated to his 
Grammar, and printed with it; By timer's " Lyra 
Prophetica," or a Critico-practical Analysis of the 
book of Psalms (a most excellent production in this 
way;) and Leusden's " Clavis Yeteris Testamenti;" 
a work similar to that compiled for the Greek Testa- 
ment, by the same author, (k) 

Having perused the chapters prescribed, and com- 
mitted to memory the more essential rudiments of 
Grammar, (as far as this can be done without be- 
coming tedious,) it remains that the whole Bible 
should be- immediately and thoroughly read through. 
Compendiums, Manuals, &c. may respectively possess 
merit; but they must never be suffered to preclude 
the learner from the Scriptures, which should consti- 
tute the main object of his attention. Many have 
erred greatly in this point; and after consuming much 


time over compendium*, their advancement has been 
considerably impeded, and been 

ted from studying the whole of the Sacred 

In this perusal of t; v the version used 

should be accurate; that of Tremellius with Notes,, 
will be found to merit recommendation. It must also 
be prosecuted with as much persevering assiduity as 
possible, It og intervals have elapse. 

learner forget what he had previously known. 

The significations of words may be icritten in the 
margin, or interline the text, until, by means of repe- 
tition, they become familiar. Numbers have testified 
from experience - the utility of this mode; though I 
would allow every one to enjoy his private opinion. 
No person can, however, learn mere uncocr 
words with either pleasure or profit; nor would I ad- 
vise the reader to make use of a Lexicon, unless is* 
dec-:". > . - *.;.:.: •:: (>.•;-; :"::. .. :: ':: -.i_ :'-.—.-_- : .1 
grammatical knowledge, much of his time would, in 
consequence, be irrecoverably lost. It will prove 
more beneficial to have a Bible with all the roc 
pressed in the margin, such as that of Montanus; or, 
otherwise, to write those roots which are not known, 
and ascertain their significations from a friend. Be- 
sides, little moment, if, in a first reading, 
MnemoHh nmam aofbined: many have protracted 
their advancement by yielding to the unreasonable de- 


While thus employed, in reading the Original 
Scriptures, the Hebrew Grammar, under the direc- 
tion of a rilaster, will be gradually acquired; for when 
a person is daily engaged in studying the Text, most 
grammatical difficulties will be overcome in one or 
two weeks. They, however, who can never rest sa- 
tisfied without inquiring into every critical nicety, will 
eventually lament, that their time has been misapplied. 

The Old Testament being thus thoroughly peru- 
sed, which we have known some do in the course of 
three months, it may be read a second time, and in a 
shorter period; remembering, that it should be a chief 
concern with the student not to lose what was acqui- 
red in the first reading. With this may be connected 
an examination into Idiom; a subject of which we shall 
treat hereafter. If in this second reading, the stu- 
dent be inclined to make use of Leusden's Hebrew 
Manuel, in order to commit the words of the Old 
Testament to memory with greater facility, I would 
not dissuade him from the attempt, (m) 

It plainly appears, from what has been advanced, 
that, in order to study the Hebrew effectually, we 
should place entire dependance neither on a Tutor, 
nor on private exertions, only; they must be conjoin- 
ed. However excellent the method, a very great loss 
of time will undoubtedly be prevented, if the efforts 
of the student be seconded by those of a teacher; be- 
cause tbe latter can introduce him to a deep acquaint- 


ance with the language by the readiest way. The 
proper office of the preceptor is to explain difficulties, 
as, in the course of reading, they occur; afld to point 
out, in a perspicuous manner, the method best adapt- 
ed to private study. I am not unacquainted with the 
different modes prescribed by others; but I am fully 
warranted in saying, that this which I have proposed 
is most fully calculated to answer the ends in view, 
and the least likely to issue in disappointment, (n) 

If the student use Men. Ben. Israel's Bible with- 
out points, and habituate himself to search out the 
texts proposed in public and in private, and to com- 
pare them with the Hebrew, he will promote and con- 
firm his progress, (o) 

In learning a language, it is a practice of no small 
utility, for two or three friends to unite in the prose- 
cution of their studies, and strive to afford mutual as- 
sistance. This may be accomplished, by instituting 
some kind of exercise or examination between the 

When engaged in this branch of Scripture reading, 
the student should observe the following rules: 

1. Never be weary of writing the signification of 
words. This is an excellent auxiliary to the memo- 
ry; and, though it may, perhaps, appear to be a tedious, 
unnecessary provision at the first, it will soon recom- 
mend itself by its practical utility. 

% When the Root of anv word is not of fcasv at* 


tainment, write the word in the margin; and, instead 
of laboriously searching it out in a Lexicon, ascertain 
it from a Friend or Tutor, This plan will not be 
found unprofitable, in the second, or even the third 
reading; provided it have been duly executed in the 
first reading. 

3. The biblical student should carefully guard 
against reading without rule or plan : he must proceed 
through the books of the Inspired Writings in their 
regular succession. The persevering will, eventu- 
ally, succeed: while they who are incessantly vacilla- 
ting, must naturally expect to suffer considerable loss. 
A good acquaintance with* a language is but seldom 
acquired, when order is not deemed of importance. 

4. Let it be deeply impressed on the mind, that all 
things cannot be learned at once. It is not requisite, 
that the student should, in the first reading, make 
himself master of every difficulty: some points apper- 
tain rather to a second and more accurate perusal, 
and their consideration should, on that account, be 
deferred. Many have imbibed an early distaste for 
the study of languages, in consequence of neglecting 
to attend to this precept. 

5. The Text should be frequently read aloud; for 
the custom of reading mentally, often induces a habit 
of stammering and reading slowly, even after a great 
part of the Bible has been perused. 



6. .It will conduce to improvement, if the Tutor 
sometimes read the Text, and cause his pupils' care- 
fully to imitate his pronunciation. 

7. When it can be done, it may be found useful to 
review and repeat on the Saturday, the lessons of the 
preceding days. Subsequent weeks will bear abun- 
dant testimony to the excellency of this practice. 

8. The books of the Chronicles, are to be taken in 
their natural order, and follow the books of Kings; 
which, in point of subject-matter, they much resem- 
ble. — Those parts of the Hagiographa which are 
written in Chaldee, may, in the first reading, be 
omitted, (p) 

9. Different Teachers should not be employed, 
when learning the rudiments of a language. 

10. Words that seldom, or but once, occur, may 
be noted on paper; or, they may be impressed on the 
mind, by the frequent repetition of Leusden's Com- 

11. In a first reading, those Proper Substantives 
which are not easily distinguishable from Appellatives, 
should be marked with the pen. The progress of 
students is too frequently protracted, through their 
inability to discern between Common and Proper 


2. Of Idiom. 

If we wish to interpret the Original Scriptures 
with propriety, and to form a right judgment of Trans- 
lations, it is indispensable, that we be acquainted with 
the Idiom of the Old and New Testaments. It will 
be highly necessary, however, to ascertain what is 
meant by the term itself, before we proceed to treat 
of it, as a branch of study. The doctrine may, other- 
wise, be' extended to phrases to which it by no means 
applies: or, it may be thought on the other hand, that 
all Idiomatic expressions can be included in a few 
rules; and thus the major part of them will be over- 

" An Idiom," observes Danhauerus, " is an ex- 
u pression common to the whole language of which it 
" is a part; pertaining to that language only; and ap- 
" plying to it always. Common to the whole Ian- 
" guage, — because always employed by writers in that 
" tongue, when they wish to express the same thing: 
" pertaining to it alone , because not only exclusively 
" but also eminently peculiar to it; and always, that 
" is. not from mere accident, or from casual analogy." 

Danhauerus also makes a just distinction between 
Idiom and Signification; intimating that the Significa- 
tion of words is not in itself to be referred to Idiom, 
but is a study antecedent to it, and distinct from it; 
being chiefly learned from etymology, and the use of 


WOfds. — It may also happen, that, through the mere 

signification of words, when translated, expressions 

Sometimes be improperly deemed Idiomatic: as, 

d cannot be rendered into another language 

by a word synonymous; Ol only by one that is very 

I roposed. 
That is properly an Idiom, which cannot be ren- 
dered word for word, into anotl ige, without 
i re purity o\ that language and wound- 
's of those who an th it. Dan- 
haue k from Augustine, that is ex- 
tremely pertinent. — % * We should learn how the lan- 
" gnage of I i is to be received, consistently 

respective languages 
■ tongue has modes of expr 

" appear absurd.' 3 If this observation be duly m 
ed] we shall readily apprehend the nature of Idiom, (q) 

It is now proper to notice, in r to the Old 

Test,- an Idiom is called, from the Hebrew 

tongue, a H except that Syriac and CI 

I respectively. Syriasms Chakhiams 
i (horns are, by some, denomi- 
'.oly Greek 
Style;'" a designation which includes those p] 

; : stk] but a: 

Greek words. 

New Tt s ire are carefully 


to distinguish between Hebraisms and pure Grecisms. 
Ptochen Stolberg, and others have indeed written 
judiciously, on the purity of the New-Testament 
Greek, and shown that many phrases generally deemed 
Hebraisms, were actually used by the profane Greek 
writers; and it cannot be denied but that caution is 
necessary when collating the style of the New, with 
that of the Old Testament. It is, nevertheless, very 
evident that the Inspired Penmen borrowed many 
phrases from their vernacular tongue. Hence on 
the one hand no person can say that the style of the 
New Testament ditTers widely from that of profane 
authors ; and yet, on the other* rto book can be ren- 
dered into the Hebrew Idiom with more facility not 
on account of the subject-matter only but chiefly be- 
cause of the similarity existing between the respective 
styles of their compositions. See the u Hermeneuticae 
Sacrae." of Danhauerus Art. 10. §5. P. 181 182; 
and the authors cited by PfehTer, " Critic. Sac." P. 
78, &c. and 214. — It therefore obviously follows that 
no person can attain to an exact acquaintance with 
the Idiom of the New Testament unless he first study 
the doctrine of Hebraisms and- on this account the 
examination of Idiom should immediately follow the 
first perusal of the Old and New Testaments, (r) 

Among the works which have been written on this 
subject the l * Grammatica Sacra," in the third trea- 
tise of Glassius' " Philologia Sacra," merits particular 


regard, and judiciously conjoins the Idiom both of the 
Old and New Testaments. Without meaning to de- 
tract, however, in the least, from the credit of this 
celebrated man, who has deserved so well of the 
church, and whose memory I cannot but revere, it will 
be necessary to make a few critical remarks on his 
work, in order to its being read with profit, (s) 

1. The rules which it contains, are taken from the 
" Clavis Scrip turae Sacrae" of Flacius Illyricus: a 
work which may very properly be read and collated 
with the book in question, (t) 

2. A great part of the Examples are taken from 
other authors, especially from the notes of Junius and 
Tremellius. Buxtorf ? s " Thesaurus Grammaticus" 
may be likewise collated with it, as well as the " Ob- 
servationes Philologicse et Exegeticae" of Chem- 
nitz. (u,y 

3 Glassius often considers as Idiomatic, forms of 
expression which, if duly examined, it will be evident 
may obtain in all languages ; provided the same cir- 
cumstances concur, and make it requisite: being an 
arbitrary expression, and not warranted by the genius 
of the tongue. 

4. He has increased the number of the Rules, which 
might, with more propriety, have been abridged; so 
as not so much to try the memory of learners. 

5. He does not give the reasons of the Rules. 
This might have been done to most, if not to all 


of them ; and especially to those on Grammatical 

6. He does not treat of the doctrine of Idiom tho- 
roughly. Many Idioms lie, as it were, concealed, 
both in the Hebrew and other languages ; particular- 
ly, in the connexion of words. That this is the case 
in the Latin tongue, has been fully proved by Schorus ; 
whose little works, " Methodus discendae linguae Lati- 
nse et Grecae," and " Phrases Ciceronianae," (espe- 
cially the preface,) deserve commendation, (v) 

Some valuable Spicilegia have been added to Glas- 
sius' work by Danhauerus. See Hermeneut Sac, 
Art. VI. P. 183, &c. 

If the reader desire to engage more fully in this 
study, he may derive the requisite assistance from the 
" Adversaria Sacra" of Fesselius ; and from the 
Commentaries of Drusius, Grotius, &c. contained in 
ten volumes of " Critici Sacri." Pfieffer likewise 
cites authors on this subject, in his " Critica Sacra,' 7 
P. 174, and 175. It is, however, to be observed, 
that a very tolerable acquaintance with the subject of 
Idiom may be acquired from the above-mentioned 
u Grammatica Sacra" of Glassius. (w) 

Various are the methods which have been devised 
for the study of Glassius' work. Some have trans- 
cribed an Index of the Rules into their Bibles, that 
they might be able to refer to them with less trouble, 
when examining the text. Others have preferred read- 


ing Herwart's Compendium: while others again have 
perused the Index subjoined to the " Grammatica 
Sacra," and transcribed in the margin of their Bibles, 
the heads of the rules, and even the explanations an- 
nexed by its author. The last plan is that which I 
recommend to the reader, (x) 

When, however, the assistance of a friend can be 
procured, it is really advisable for the student to avail 
himself of it. Any person who thoroughly understands 
the nature of Idiom, may include the whole doctrine 
in two sections, taken, one from the Old, and the 
other, from the New Testament ; and point out the 
Idioms as they occur, adding, if agreeable, the rules 
from Glassius and other writers. I have experienced, 
that, by adopting this mode, the whole may be very 
profitably gone through in the space of one month. — - 
There is one other advantage peculiar to it, that not 
being employed on various and indifferent parts of the 
Bible, but confined to a few definite pages, the student 
enjoys the advantage of being able to refer to a pa- 
rallel example in sections previously examined, when- 
ever a corresponding Idiom comes under his notice. 

The Tutor may follow the order of the Rules, first, 
briefly explaining them ; adding, next, one or two se- 
lect examples ; and, lastly, impressing the whole upon 
the pupil's mind by an attentive examination. This 
will not be a task of any length. 

It must be confessed, that, in gaining a knowledge 


of Idiom, much depends on a cc ent pe- 

rusal cf t : :e Gi'-ek c.' & evi- 

dent, from considering the principles on which-, with- 
out adverting to any Rules , we judge of our vernacu- 
lar Idiom. It always sounds very harshly to us who 
are familiar with it, whenever this is violated ; and 
we may therefore conclude, that a perfect acquaintance 
with the Idiom of any tongue, is best acquired by stu- 
dying and familiarizing the tongue itself. 

Having now treated of the doctrine of Mom, and 
made those remarks on it as a study which we deem- 
ed important, let the reader be admonished, not to 
devote his time and attention to the Letter of Scrip- 
ture only, but hasten to the enjoyment of those sacred 
delights, which flow from the Spirit of the lively 

3. Of the Chaldee Language. 

When the student has made a proficiency in the 
Hebrew, he should commence with the Chaldee lan- 
guage. This may be learned according to the me- 
thod prescribed for acquiring the Greek and Hebrew: 
— taking those parts of the Scriptures that were writ- 
ten in Chaldee, and reading them with a translation. 

They who covet a more enlarged knowledge of this 
tongue, may study the Targum; which, if they be 


previously versed in the Hebrew, will cost them littles 
trouble to understand. See Pfeiffer's " Critiea Sa- 
cra," page 398, &c. (y) 

4< Of the Rabbinical Writings. 

The study of Rabbinism presupposes an acquaint- 
ance with the Hebrew and Chaldee; and is better 
learned by practice, than by precept. Cellarius has 
written on this subject; and Sixtinus Amama has pro- 
posed an easy method of acquiring it. Those who do 
not make this their professed study, (which can be 
proper for but few,) will find it sufficient, if they at- 
tentively peruse Michlal Iophi; which is a kind of 
Literal Commentary on the Old Testament, and con- 
tains the substance of all the Rabbinical Annotations. 
A Master will be useful in this branch of Scripture 
literature, in order to explain any difficulties that may 
occur. — They who wish to engage in the study more 
fully, may consult the Biblia of Buxtorf ; and Pfeif- 
fer's " Manuductio facilis ad lectionem Talmudico- 
Rabbinicam." Vide " Critiea Sacra," Page 517, 
&c. (z) 

He who applies himself to the writings of the Rab- 
bins with an undue and intemperate ardour, may, per- 
haps, enjoy his labours; but I would caution the read- 
er against filling his mind with Judaical absurdities, 
while the Sacred Volume invites him to contemplate 
divine truths, and to participate of divine pleasures 




Historical Reading is confined to the outward 
Letter of Scripture, and its proper tendency is to lead 
the mind to an historical knowledge of the things con- 
tained in it, as the Argument, Scope, &c. — whether 
this knowledge be sought in the Volume of inspiration 
itself, or through the medium of other helps, (a) 

Historical reading comprehends an acquaintance 
with the following particulars : — • 

I. The Sum and Substance of the Old and New 
Testaments. This may be acquired from a cursory 
perusal: and, indeed, might be reasonably presupposed 
in a student of divinity, who is expected " to have 
" known from a child, the Holy Scriptures:" 2 Tim. 
iii. 15. The Sum and Substance of the Old and 
New Testaments, we define to be — what is under- 
stood by " the Old and New Testaments;" and, like- 
wise, the points in which they differ from each other. 
Luther's Prefaces will furnish the reader with all ne- 


cessary information on this head; and give him a ge- 
latter of the books of Scrip- 
ture. (6) 

II. The Inspired Penmen. 

III. The Occasion or Causes of writing. These 
are, most commonly, declared by the Sacred Writers 
in explicit terms; and, when diligently examined, they 
assist the reader in ascertaining the Scope, and in 
gaining a fuller conception of the Subject. 

IV. The Scope: so far as it can be gathered from 
historical incidents. 

V. The Arquments of the respective books: a 
perfect acquaintance with which, prepares the mind 
for more accurate investigation. A knowledge of 
the Arguments j whether of books or chapters, may 
be acquired with more advantage from Scripture it- 
self, than from any compilations that have been 
made to assist the memory; as Martin's " Memoriale 

Biblicum," Heidegger's " Enchiridion," &c. 

though works of this kind may be useful in the busi- 
ness of repetition, and in more forcibly impressing on 
the memory what has been previously learned. It is, 
nevertheless, proper to guard against wasting time 
over compendiums; and against such an attention to 


the mere Letter, as might induce a neglect of the 
Spirit of the Holy Oracles. Diligence in reading and 
examining the Word itself, is a compendious system 
of mnemonics, (c) 

Under this head, there are three helps worthy of 
remark: — a Tutor,- Diligence, and Exercises institu- 
ted between fellow-students. 

A Tutor. The instructions of an able Tutor or 
Friend, will prevent much loss of time, and be other- 
wise of essential service; when the student is engaged 
in obtaining a knowledge of those things, which relate, 
as well to the whole Scripture, as to its respective 
books. Indeed, it cannot but prove exceedingly pre- 
judicial to the learner, if he be deprived of the ad- 
vantages that result from the cathechetical mode of 
teaching; which, by descanting on the scope, argu- 
ment, &c. of a book, and by asking questions con- 
cerning them, is so happily calculated to impress the 

Diligence. The best mode of confirming the mind 
in the recollection of what has been previously learned 
from the lips of a Tutor, is to read and re-read the 
books oi Scripture. It is indeed necessary to be in- 
cessantly exercised in these elements of exposition, 
and thus to render them familiar; lest, in interpreting 
any Sacred Writer, we be betrayed into error. 

Exercises between Associates in Study. Frequent 


discussion and converse with fellow-students, are, in 
this, as well as all other parts of learning, extremely 
helpful to the memory, when conducted with due mo- 
deration. By means of these, we may both form an 
acquaintance with the Arguments, &c. of books and 
chapters; and likewise retain them constantly in re- 

VI. The Seats of Subjects. A knowledge of 
these is requisite, in order that the Scriptures may be 
digested in the mind, as it were, into common-places ; 
whence passages parallel to any text that may occur, 
will readily suggest themselves. With a view to this, 
it is recommended by Wolffgang Franzius, in his ad- 
mirable preface to his treatise, " De Scripturae Sa- 
crae Interpretation, " not to measure our reading by 
the chapters into which Holy Writ has been divided, 
but to peruse an entire subject at one time. Were 
this monition strictly regarded, students would clearly 
perceive, that to explain scripture by scripture, and 
difficult passages by others of easier solution, is an 
invaluable expository help: and they would likewise 
have in constant readiness, a system of Divinity com- 
piled from the Sacred volume itself, and divested of 
all human glosses, (d) 

The high importance of this help was not unobserved 
by Chemnitz. T T ? says — " Since the several articles 
ci of the Christian faith, have their own peculiar Seats, 


u in certain parts of God's Word; it is indispensably 
a requisite to ascertain and familiarize those sacred 
" testimonies by which scriptural truths are confirmed. 
" He who deserts these testimonies, at once so suita- 
" ble and perspicuous, in order to give the ampler 
" scope to the exercise of his own judgment, is unwor- 
" thy of the student's imitation and regard. Let the 
St Scriptures explain themselves: and let their genuine 
" force and native emphasis be carefully collected from 
u the grammatical signification of the words, &c. in 
" order that the sacred testimonies may carry with 
" them their full weight. It is also proper to know, 
" in what manner, and on what principles, they are 
" applied; as well when adduced to detect error, as 
11 when they are cited to confirm truth." — These re- 
u marks are applicable to Doctrinal Reading likewise ; 
for which, see Part II. Chap 3. (e) 

The Seat of a subject is — any place in the Scrip- 
tures where such subject is treated: whether profess- 
edly; or in subordination to another subject ; or, more 
especially, when it is regularly discussed and grounded 
by the obvious appointment of the Holy Spirit. This 
last may be termed its Proper Seat ; and is that of 
which we, at present, chiefly speak. It should, how- 
ever, be remarked, that the same subjects are thus 
treated, in more than one chapter and book of Scrip- 
ture ; and. hence, there is an evident difference even 
between the Proper Seats of the .same subject. The 


doctrine of Justification, for instance, is considered in 
the third chapter of Philippians, as in its Proper Seat ; 
but the epistles to the Romans and Galatians, are, 
more eminently, the Seats of that doctrine. 

The student will find it a beneficial practice, if he 
draw up, as he reads, for his own private use, an In- 
dex of Subjects digested according to their Proper 
Seats. To form such an Index, will not require mucB 
labour, and will certainly be productive of abundant 
advantage. Those which are prepared by others (as 
that of Tossanus, annexed to the version of Junius 
and Tremellius,) do not so forcibly affect the memo- 
ry. Young persons are not indeed capable of ar- 
ranging such an Index with the requisite precision: 
they ought, on that account, to be assisted by a Mas- 
ter, at least in a few chapters, lest their time and la- 
bour should be unsuccessfully bestowed. (J) 

The exercises of Discussion and Examination are 
better adapted to fix the seats of subjects in the mind, 
than any other means whatever. Students do not in- 
deed usually appreciate the important advantages 
which result from a perfect acquaintance with the 
Seats, and therefore do not cultivate this branch of 
study with a correspondent attention ; but experience 
will demonstrate and enforce its claims, 

VII. ExTER.VAL Cl$( ■>. Such arts 

MSS. editions ; versions ; the divisions, made by 


chapters, verses, and points ; accents ; inscriptions ; 
subscriptions ; various readings ; the Masora ; &,c. — 
these may be emphatically denominated external. On 
such points, recourse may be had to the following 
works: — Walther's u Officina Biblica ;" Kortholtus 
u de variis Scripturse Sacrse Editionibus ;" Scherert- 
zius' " Animadversiones Philologicae in Codicem Ye-* 
teris et Novi Testamenti ;" Fabricius' " Partitiones 
Codicis Hebrsei ;" and Father Richard Simon's 
u Critica Sacra Veteris et Novi Testamenti." — It 
is, however, allowed, that these books contain excep- 
tionable matter ; and, among others, this is noticed 
by Majus, in several Latin Dissertations published at 
Frankfort in 1690 ; and also by Walton, in the pre- 
face to his Polyglott Bible. Many remarks to this 
effect maybe likewise seen in the " Critica Sacra" of 
Pfeiffer. (g) 

Various things connected with History occur even 
in texts of Scripture : as the names of places and sea- 
sons ; genealogies ; various kinds of money, weights, 
and measures ; phrases appropriated to peculiar anti- 
quities, rites, laws, privileges, or to some condition 
of persons. Whatever, therefore, goes to explain such 
points, appertains to Historical Reading. Hence, Na- 
tural History, is, in no small degree, helpful to the bib- 
lical student ; and on this ground, Franzius composed 
his " Historia Anamalium," and has been followed 
more at large bv Bochart in his a Hierozoictts." 


The other learned works of the latter merit commen- 
dation, (h) 

It is proper to remark, with regard to Historical 
reading, that it would be unwise, indeed, to prefer it, 
as it concerns the subjects which have been consider- 
ed, to the other branches of Scripture Reading; a 
•position on which we shall speak more fully, in treat- 
ing of the Order in which the Sacred Volume should 
be studied. To be immoderately anxious about things 
merely external, argues a great insensibility of the 
internal excellencies of the Holy Scriptures. — It 
should likewise be our concern, to guard against vain- 
glory, in a business wherein the glory of God should 
be our only object. 

There is also a necessity for the exercise of cau- 
tion, lest a knowledge of external points render us less 
ardent and lively in reading the Word itself. How 
many are there who err in this respect, and feed con- 
tentedly on the husks, while those heavenly delights 
which flow from the Volume of Revelation remain un- 
tasted and unenjoyed. 

Since the Letter is examined only for the sake of 
the Spirit of the Sacred Oracles, we should contemn 
whatever cannot be reduced to some useful purpose; 
and never give place to vain, unprofitable curiosity. 
He who protracts his advancement, by dwelling too 
long on things of secondary importance, is justly 
deemed unworthy of the divine wisdom which Scrip- 


ture inculcates. In this study, our estimate of other 
books is constantly to be formed, from the degree in 
which they assist us in attaining the proper object of 
the Bible itself. 

There are some things which, from their pecu- 
liar nature, must be referred to following chapters; 
thus, the Scope and Argument are more accurately 
considered under Analytical Reading. They could 
not, however, be excluded from this chapter, because 
they are to be historically known, and appertain to 
any general comprehension of the things contained in 
Scripture; and yet they are not so known as in Ana- 
lytical and Expository reading, where they will re- 
quire a further investigation. 

It is highly prejudicial to young students, to take 
up, at will, the works of many and various writers; 
since they want judgment to discriminate, skill to se- 
lect, as well as practice and experience to read books 
with profit. During the first years of study, they 
should confine themselves within the limits prescribed . 
by a Friend or Tutor. They should read little, but 
read that little well; they should prefer those works 
whose tendency is to lay a solid foundation, and pe- 
ruse them in a sedate and attentive manner; never 
commencing any other book until the subject of the 
former be perfectly understood and digested. If these 
monitions be neglected, they may become sciolists, 
but never men of learning; sophists, but never truly 


wise : the mind will be possessed by an intemperate 
thirst after " knowledge that puffeth up/' and filled 
with unholy indifference for " the wisdom which cometh 
from above." 




Analytical Reading of Scripture, is that by which 
we institute a logical analysis; and consider the struc- 
ture, connexion, and order, of entire books and par*» 
ticular texts of the Old and New Testaments: that, 
being thus resolved into their first principles, they 
may be understood with the greater facility and pre- 

This branch of reading is not prescribed, on the 
supposition that the Sacred Penmen affected to com- 
pose and arrange their subjects, according to the 
rules of Logic ; for it were absurd to entertain so un- 
worthy an idea of men divinely inspired; but it is 
adopted, because Order is so natural to the things 
themselves, to reason, and to discourse, that it ac- 
companies language, whether sacred or profane, even 
when it is not studied; and tends, in no small degree, 
to render it perspicuous and easily understood, This 
is evident in all discourse; for, though it be of the 
most familiar kind, it will not please an iUitercde per- 


son, unless its parts harmonize, and order be observed. 
Hence, it is certain, that to observe the order and 
connexion, is more necessary in interpreting, than in 
dictating; because, in the former, they are not imme- 
diately obvious to all; while, as it respects the latter. 
we have only to follow as nature leads. 

That it is highly expedient to obtain an accurate 
knowledge of Logical Analysis is evident from the 
following considerations: 

1. As all helps calculated to expound the Scrip- 
tures, reciprocally explain, assist, and confirm each 
other; so Analysis has a great effect in determining 
the Emphasis, Idiom, Literal Sense, Inferences, and 
Practical Application. 

2. Analysis causes the several members, and even 
words of the Text, to be considered with more accu- 
racy and precision. 

3. It affords especial aid to the memory. 

4. When any thing is to be, or has been, proved 
from a text, it lays the whole connexion of the sub- 
ject open to inspection. 

5. It assists in meditation and in the delivery of a 

6. It developes the grounds on which the Inspired 
"Writers propound their doctrines; which is a point of 
of much importance. 


7. It conduces, in no small degree., to the deci- 
sion of controversies. 

Logical Reading is employed either on whole Books, 
or on particular Texts. The resolution of particular 
Texts, however, presupposes an acquaintance with 
the structure of whole Books. Indeed, they who 
begin with texts, are generally deficient, as they are 
not prepared for that branch of Analysis. 

In Logical Reading, the Books of Scripture must 
evidently be considered in different views. 

First, the Doctrinal books are to be referred hi- 
ther; such are the Epistles in the New Testament. 
A distinction is to be made between these, the His- 
torical and Prophetic books, and the Psalms: and 
they also must be distinguished from each other. 

The Doctrinal books are either of one, or of Pori- 
ous Argument. If they be of the latter kind, the 
different Arguments must be separated, and each of 
them analyzed apart. Thus, the first Epistle to the 
Corinthians treats of the following particulars: 

1. The inconsiderate Zeal of that church; under 
the influence of which, one person preferred Paul; 
and another, Apollos: to Chap. 4. inclusive. 

2. The Incest that had been committed among 
them: Chap. 5. 

3. Their Law-suits: Chan. G, 


4. Their Fornication: Chap. 6. 

5. Of Marriage and Divorce: Chap. 7. 

6. Of Things offered to Idols: Chapters 8, 9, 10, 

7. Of the External Deportment of Christians, in 
the public congregation: Chap. 11. 

8. Of the Abuse of the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper: Chap. 11. 

9. Of Spiritual Gifts; and the Harmony subsisting 
between such gifts in certain particulars: Chap. 12. 

10. Of Christian Love: Chap. 13. 

11. Of the Manner of conducting Holy Assem- 
blies; and of prophesying therein: Chap. 14. 

12. Of the Resurrection: Chap. 15. 

13. Of Alms, &c. Chap. 16. 

If they consist of one Argument, the following rules 
must be observed: 

1 . By frequent reading, the Scope should be well 
ascertained and understood. 

2. All Conclusions affecting the principal Scope 
and General Argument of the whole book, must bo 
seduously compared with the Scope. 

3. The Middle Terms must be thoroughly weighed, 
and compared with all the subordinate Conclusions. 

It may, hewever, prove sufficient to give us a right 


Understanding of the structure of a book, if we duly 
notice the Scope of the whole, the Conclusions ac- 
commodated to the Scope, and the Middle Terms 
prepared to produce these Conclusions; all arranged 
in their proper order. That this may more effectu- 
ally be accomplished, it will be necessary to observe 
the subsequent remarks: 

1. The greater number of the books in question 
are polemical;* whence, if the Opposite Proposition 
be examined, it will afford material service in ascer- 
taining the Scope, and in distinguishing it from that 
of other books. This is evidently the case in the 
Epistle to the Galatians. (a) 

2. Most of the epistles are divided into four parts: 
that is, contain two principal parts; of which the 
former is doctrinal : and the latter, hortatory, or prac- 
tical, and, as it were, applicatory, (as may be seen in 
Romans, Galatians, Ephesians, and Colossians:) and 
two secondary parts, the Exordium and the Conclu- 
sion. If the Analysis of the Doctrinal part be pro- 
perly instituted, little difficulty will attend the 
others, (b) 

3. Several books treat of the same, or at least, of 
a kindred Argument; and some analytical aid may be 
drawn from this affinity. Thus, the Epistles to the 
Romans and Galatians both treat of Justification; 
and the Epistles addressed to the Ephesians ; Phi- 


lippians, and Colossians ; touch likewise on the same 

The Historical Books are attended with less diffi- 
culty, because the order, in an historical narration, 
cannot but be obvious. The different histories which 
they contain, should, however, be accurately separa- 
ted; and, then, considered according to antecedents 
and consequents. We shall find it of assistance here, 
if we begin to read, not by chapters, but as was be- 
fore recommended, by distinct subjects. 

The Prophetical Books are very similar in nature 
to the Historical Books, and borrow light from them. 
This was also Luther's opinion: Praef. in Jes. The 
Prophetical Books refer to the future ; as the Histo- 
rical, to the past. 

The Psalms must be analyzed separately; and, 
being short, they will be solved with more ease than 
whole books: especially if we be careful not to in- 
fringe, by any refined logical subtilties, on the Pro- 
phetic Spirit, the Affections of the Writer, and the 
Scope of God the Holy Ghost. When Analysis has 
in it any thing forced, it must necessarily be defec- 
tive. A warm and glowing emotion will frequently 
overstep the limits of natural, or, rather, of accus- 
tomed order; nor can it reasonably be confined withio 


them. See Gen. xlviii. 14. We do best, when we 
seek the Order in the Subject; and not the Subject, 
in an order which we may have ill conceived. 

In analyzing a Doctrinal Text, the following rules 
must be attended to : 

1. The Text should be referred to the Proper 
Argument and General Scope of the whole book; for 
various things belong to various scopes. 

2. We must examine whether the Text have not 
a nearer connexion with some subordinate Scope; and, 
consequently, a mediate rather than immediate, re- 
ference to the Scope of the whole Book. 

3. It is proper to inquire, whether the Text refer 
to the General Scope, as a Conclusion, as a Middle 
Term, or as a Perfect Syllogism : and also, whether 
the Argument go to prove, to explain, or to illus- 
trate; all which, it will not be difficult to ascertain, 
when we are thoroughly acquainted with the argument 
and structure of the whole Book or Section, (c) 

4. The Proposition contained in the Text, must 
next be formed and examined; and this, not in diffe- 
rent or more simple language (which belongs to Ex- 
position,) but in the very words of the Text. 

5. The Subject and Predicate of the proposition 
must be considered, (d) 

6. The casual matter which may attach to tho 


Subject and Predicate must be separated; and it 
should be ascertained, what part of it belongs to the 
former, and what to the latter; as well as what rela- 
tion they bear to each other. 

7. If there be several Doctrines enumerated iu 
one Text, they must be examined separately; and, 
afterwards, the order in which they connect should 
he ascertained; a point to which the Inspired Writers 
are usually very attentive. 

In order that the mode of instituting an Analysis 
of any entire doctrinal Book may be rendered evident 
to all, we propose the following rules, in addition to 
those which have been already given: 

I. Read, re-read, and repeat the whole Epistle 
(for here I allude more particularly to the Epistles,) 
from beginning to end, in the original Greek; and, if 
possible, in an ancient copy, where the text is not di- 
vided into verses. Read it, as^ou would an epistle from 
a friend, three or four times over without interrup- 
tion, until you fully apprehend the meaning, and the 
subject of the whole letter become clear. In fact, 
it should be perused, as it may be supposed, the 
Epistles which Paul addressed to the Corinthians 
were perused by them — frequently; not with many 
interruptions; not by chapters; but the whole read, at 
once, and until they perfectly understood the Apostle's 


mind. — Much perplexity has certainly arisen from the 
manner in which the generality of persons read the 
Scriptures. They mangle and dismember a text; and 
consider that separately, which should always be con- 
nected with antecedents and consequents. On this 
account, we again recommend the advice given by 
Franzius, to read without observing the arbitrary di- 
visions of chapter and verse. 

II. From this perusal, re-perusal, and repetition of 
the Epistle, the student must take care to derive a 
right knowledge of the Scope which the Apostle had 
in writing it, and thus obtain an acquaintance with the 
General Argument of the Epistle. 

In order to succeed in this effectually, let the sub- 
sequent precautions be attended to : 

1 . Remark the Words by which the Apostle him- 
self declares his object and scope ; which he frequently 
does in express terms. 

2. Remark the Historical Incidents noticed in the 
Text; from which some judgment may be formed of 
the state of the controversy, as well as of the circum- 
stances of the church or person to whom the Epistle 
is addressed. 

3. When reference can be made to the " Acts of 
the Apostles," examine that book, and collate it with 
the text; inasmuch as it throws light on all the 


4. Weigh every word attentively (not however 
spending much time over minute words;) and consi- 
der whether it contain any thing which may lead to a 
more accurate judgment of the scope and argument of 
the whole Epistle. No one can easily be so dull of 
apprehension, as not to attain, by this means, the ob- 
ject he should have in view. 

III. When all this has been done, the student 
should resume the Epistle, and sedulously weigh the 
Conclusions interspersed through it. These are best 
ascertained by means of the particles, xv ocpoc ho <Sfc. 
wherefore, therefore, &.c. (e) 

W r ith respect to these Conclusions — 

1 . Gain some knowledge of their meaning. 

2. Compare them together, in order to determine 
in what they agree, and in what they differ. 

3. Compare them with Scope and Argument of 
the whole Epistle; both which, it is supposed, are 
become familar to the student. 

4. Distinguish those which contain the Entire 
Scope of the whole Epistle, immediately in them- 
selves; and those which are referred to it mediately; 
that is, are as Middle Terms to the Principal Con- 
clusion. According to the accuracy with which the 
Conclusions are understood, and the precision with 
which they are distinguished; will the entrance to 


Logical Analysis become more or less easy and cer- 
tain. For what is it to institute a Logical Analysis, 
but to search out the truth contained in any Proposi- 
tion or Conclusion , and the Middle Terms by which 
that truth is demonstrated? 

IV. The Conclusions being thus examined, the 
student should resume the Epistle, and ascertain the 
Middle Terms, or reasons on which these Conclusions 
are founded, whether they precede, or follow them. 
In a Logical Analysis, it is proper to notice that 
which proves; and to separate what is explanatory, 
from that which is illustrative. 

V. Having thus throro uglily examined the Epistle, 
its component parts will become very perceptible. If 
there be an Exordium and Conclusion, a separation 
must take place between them, and each must be con- 
sidered by itself. Should they prove to be twofold, 
partly Doctrinal, and partly Practical, each branch 

. must likewise be examined apart. 

Since, however, this species of Reading, is, pro- 
perly speaking, confined to the Letter of the Word, 
let us guard against supposing that we are " mighty 
in the Scriptures," if we be more solicitous to ana- 
lyze a text, than concerned about understanding and 
applying it. In the exercise of refined subtilties, and 
the solution of difficult passages, we may lose sight of 


holy Christian simplicity, and sacrifice the edification 
of ourselves and others: for when the rays of Truth 
are divided, they cannot act with so much life and 
power, as when its energies are collected together. 
May the reader learn not to abuse this branch of 
Scripture Exposition; and, in the sober use of it, may 
he realize its excellencies! 


Of reading, as it respects the spirit of the 




Expository Reading of the Scriptures has reference 
to the Literal Sense purposed by the Holy Spirit ) 
and its object is to develope and expound it. 

We say " Literal Sense," in order to distinguish 
it from the seme of the Letter, as conveyed by words 
in their proper and native signification : the considera- 
tion of which belongs to Grammatical Reading. Thus,, 
in that portion of Holy Writ, — u Thou shalt not 
kill," the sense of the Letter is, that we should not 
lay violent hands on any person, and deprive him of 
life: to elicit which, appertains to Grammatical Read- 

We added, " purposed by the Holy Spirit;" for it 
is the Literal Sense of Scripture which the Spirit 
purposes, directly or indirectly, to declare, Thus 


our Saviour shows the Literal Sense of the fifth com- 
mandment, Matt. v. 21, 22, &x. and teaches us, that 
it is possible to break this commandment in lip, in life, 
in gesture. On this subject, the reader may consult 
Chemnitz (Loci Theologici,) who gives twelve admi- 
rable rules for ascertaining the Literal Sense, purpo- 
sed by the Holy Spirit, in the Decalogue. 

It is a universal axiom, that — One Word or Sen- 
tence having respect to one and the same subject has 
but one Literal Sense formally purposed. To disco- 
ver this one and true meaning of the Holy Spirit in 
the Scriptures, is therefore the design of Expository 

In treating of the Literal Sense, we must distin- 
guish it from that which, by means of natural judg- 
ment or genuine helps to exposition, may be compre- 
hended by the unregenerate ; — by those who are des- 
titute of the Spirit's light. Were the rules proposed 
by Chemnitz for expounding the Decalogue (or ra- 
ther, derived by him from a collation of the Scrip- 
tures,) rightly understood by an unrenewed man, even 
he would be fully satisfied that they ascertained the 
proper and genuine meaning of the commandments. 
This apprehension of the Literal Sense, ought then 
to be carefully distinguished from that .sense which no 
one can apprehend, unless divinely illuminated by the 
Spirit who speaks in the Scriptures. The natural 
man has not, it is evident, anj perception of tire things 


of the Spirit of God; and Christ has declared, that 
u the World cannot receive the Spirit of Truth." 
St. Paul also observes, that " spiritual thinp^ are spi- 
ritually discerned;" that is, although the natural man, 
(a man destitute of the Spirit,) may speak diffusely, 
on the Literal Meaning of the fifth commandment, and 
may utter truths that are weighty, and consonant to 
the mind of the Holy Ghost; yet he does not spiritu- 
ally discern what he himself advances; he does not 
properly conceive of that genuine love to our neigh- 
bour flowing from faith, which is enjoined in the com- 
mandment instanced: nor of that spiritual death which 
they must inherit who foster malice against ano- 
ther. None can know this but by experience : a truth 
which, when duly considered, removes much doubt and 

We observed further — " to develope and expound:" 
for the business of the expositor is twofold; namely, 
to understand aright himself, and to explain the true 
meaning clearly to others The former should be the 
main object; the latter partly follows of itself, and 
partly derives efficacy from method, advice, practice, 
and experience. 

The primary requisite for Expository Reading, is 
an acquaintance with the branches considered in Part 
I. which go to explain the Letter of Scripture, and 
prepare the way for sound exposition: for Expository 
Reading is understood to be that which respects the 


internal evidence (avT07ri$-icc) of the Hebrew and 
Greek text, and which aims at the fuller conviction 
both of ourselves and others. 

Hence, it supposes that simple reading of the Word 
which every Christian should practise, though he be 
a stranger to the Original Scriptures; and which the 
first Christians used, when they read the Epistles 
addressed to them. As a friend declares his will by 
letter to his friend, who ascertains and executes that 
will without any laboured interpretations; so, and with 
just such plainness, does the Almighty declare his will 
to us in his Word; and thus did the Apostles convey 
their injunctions to the primitive Christians, in their 
Epistles; by which the latter regulated their conduct, 
contented with the simple and obvious meaning, and 
vmsolicitous about the learned and prolix expositions 
of commentators. 

Further, it is requisite that the mind aspire not 
only after a theoretical and historical, but after a 
practical and spiritual knowledge; lest the Scrip- 
tures be read, as the works of Aristotle would be ; 
in perusing which, we are satisfied with ascertain- 
ing the meaning through the medium of natural 

It now remains, to supply Helps, partly Inter- 
nal and partly External, for the purpose of ascer- 
taining and expounding the Literal Sense. Those 


of the former character merit the name of true and 
genuine expository helps, introducing us to an ac- 
quaintance with those things which relate to fnith and 
eternal life: for it must be remembered and constantly 
enforced, that Scripture is its own interpreter, and, 
therefore, that expository helps are to be drawn from 
its own pages. With respect to External Helps in- 
deed, they either are confined to external circum- 
stances, as Rites, Antiquities, &c; or they are them- 
selves derived from Scripture, or Internal Helps. 
Hence, we should proceed from Helps Internal to 
Helps External; for they who resort immediately to 
the latter, and neglect those Helps which repose, as 
it were, in the bosom of Holy Writ, will apply their 
exertions and their time to no useful purpose, and 
thus pay the forfeit of such idleness and indiscretion. 

Internal Helps are General, Special, and Par- 

I. General Helps are those to be used in ex- 
pounding all texts of Scripture. They are the fol- 

1. A Consideration of the Scope; and in order 
shat this Help may be rightly applied, the subsequent 
directions must be observed. 

The whole Context, and sometimes the whole Book, 
"must be studiously perused, before we attempt an ac- 


curate examination of any particular text. This was 
a constant practice with that able expositor, Wolff- 
gang Franzius. See the preface to his treatise " de 
Interpretatione Scripturae Sacrae." 

When the Scope of a whole Book, or even of any 
particular Section, is given by the Sacred Writer in 
express words, it should be carefully remarked. Thus 
St. John's Gospel, xx. 31. — " These are written, 
/A that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the 
" Son of God; and that, believing, ye might have life 
" through his name. Thus, 2 Peter, iii. 1. — " This 
u second epistle, beloved, I now write unto you; in 
u which I stir up your pure minds by way of remern- 
" brance; that ye may be mindful of the words which 
" were Spoken before by the holy prophets, and of 
" the commandment of us the apostles of the Lord 
u and Saviour." Danhauerus (Herm. Sac. p. 358.) 
judiciously observes, that the Title sometimes sug- 
gests the Scope. Thus, the beginning of the book 
of Proverbs: — " The proverbs of Solomon, the son 
u of David, king of Israel ; to know wisdom and in- 
u struction; to perceive the words of understanding; 
u to receive the instruction of wisdom, justice, judg- 
u ment, and equity; to give subtilty to the simple; to 
;i the young man, knowledge and discretion." 

When Inferences are properly examined and com- 
pared together, they greatly assist in ascertaining the 
Scope. Indeed, they either evolve it, or confirm it 


when developed, by some very decisive expressions of 
the writer, or by concurrent circumstances. 

The General Scope of the whole section or book, 
must be gathered from the whole context. In doing 
this, it will be useful to examine whether the text 
contain any account of the reasons which occasioned 
the book or section to be written. 

A Special Scope is likewise to be sought, when 
there is a Middle Term in the text, referring to a Con- 
clusion that is subordinate to the proposition and prin- 
cipal argument of the whole book. 

The Consideration of the Scope must not be laid 
aside, in the following more exact examination of the 
text itself: for if we wander from the Scope, we mar 
all. Vide the preceding Chapter, p. 60. 

Much loss of time would be prevented at this junc- 
ture, if a friend, accustomed to exposition, were brief- 
ly to explain and demonstrate the Scope of every 
book; which is a point of eminent utility. 

2. A Consideration of Antecedents ; of the Matter 
(ingredientia ;) and of Consequents. By the Matter, 
we mean the words of the particular text under exa- 
mination; with which, unless Antecedents and Conse- 
quents be carefully collated, they cannot be fully un- 
derstood. By Antecedents and Consequents, we 
mean those words which pertain to the same subject, 
in the same context. Hence, if a book consist of but 
one subject or argument, the whole of it must be re- 


ferred to antecedents and consequents: but, if it be 
composed of various arguments, only those parts are 
to be so accommodated, which belong to one and the 
same argument. Thus, if 1 Cor. x. 16. be the sub- 
ject of inquiry, the Antecedents and Consequents are 
chap. 8, 9, and 10; without an accurate collation of 
which, we can form no solid judgment of the text in 
question. Franzius, in the preface to his book, " de 
Interpretatione Scripturae Sacrae," earnestly recom^ 
mends and explains this branch of Exposition, and il- 
lustrates his remarks with examples from Holy Writ. 
See also Danhauerus u Herm. Sac." p. 360, Sec. 

3. A Collation of the passage under consideration 
w r ith other parallel passages. 

A Parallelism is either real or verbal. 

A verbal parallelism is to be sought, when the 
words are attended with any obscurity, emphasis, inv- 
propriety, or ambiguity. To this belongs the use of 
Verbal Concordances, as those of H. Stephens and 
Schmidius in Greek, that of Buxtorf in Hebrew; and 
that of Noldius, which relates to Hebrew Particles. («) 

A real Parallelism properly appertains to Exposi- 1 
tory Reading, and, in this, some aid may be derived 
from Real Concordances. But, as was remarked, 
Chap. II. Page 46, it is better to form Concordances 
ourselves, by the frequent and assiduous perusal of the 
Scripture; and diligently to commit the Seats of sub* 
reels to memory. 


A Parallelism is either adequate or inadequate . 
adequate^ when it affects the whole subject proposed 
in the text; inadequate , when it affects it only in part. 
In Expository Reading, the former is to be decidedly 
preferred; but the latter, nevertheless, merits some 
attention, since a paraphrase lurnished with such pa- 
rallelisms is not without merit: — but on this point, we 
are to speak more fully hereafter. In the year 1682, 
John Canne published an English Bible, with paral- 
lel passages annexed to the text in a continued series, 
for the purpose of showing that Scripture is the best 
interpreter of itself. It would be well, if this were 
added to all our bibles; and it might also be much en- 
larged and improved. (6) 

A Parallelism may be sought in those parts which 
flow from the text by way of consequence; but this ra- 
ther appertains to Inferential Reading and Practical 

4. The Analogy of Faith. This Expository help 
coincides with that last noticed. They, however^ 
differ from each other, first, in extent; Verbal Paral- 
lelism not belonging to this expository help; and, se- 
condly, in their mode of comprehending; for in the 
former we look for nothing but an Exposition of a 
particular passage, but in the latter we regard the 
agreement and universal harmony of the Divine Ora- 
cles. This help may, however, be very properly viewed 
as subordinate to the preceding; though, deeming it 



of high import to use it skilfully, we have assigned a 
separate consideration to it. 

In the exercise of this help, the student is called 
to guard against entertaining a false idea of the Ana- 
logy of Faith. It is a false idea, when, from a wrong 
interpretation of Scripture, or from tradition, we im- 
bibe a number of human opinions; and, receiving these 
as the genuine doctrine of faith, endeavour to interpret 
Scripture agreeably to them. On this principle, the 
.Romish Church has an Analogy of Faith; of which, 
this is the foundation. — a I believe what the Churcb 
believes." Here a circumlocution becomes necessa- 
ry: " How do you prove that this is the sense of 
Scripture?" — " Because the Church believes it." 
a Why does the Church believe it?" — " Because the 
Scripture asserts it." This will be more evident, if 
we advert to the whole system of Popery, as it is de- 
veloped, by Puffendorf, in the Appendix of his u In- 
Iroductio in Historiam, and by Ferrarius in his u Eu- 
clides Catholicus." See also Kortholt's treatise " de 
Canonc Scripturae Sacra?." 

On such grounds as these, indeeed, every sect may 
have its Analogy of Faith: all its doctrines terminating 
in some assumed position, so that its partisans may not 
contradict themselves. When persons of this descrip- 
tion meet with passages of Scripture that they cannot 
readily explain, consistently with their hypothesis, they 
Htrive to f?nlve the difficulty by that Analogy of Faith, 


which they have themselves invented. But, allowing 
that all their assumptions were founded in truth, it is 
by no means consonant with the principles of Divinity, 
to interpret Scripture by the hypothesis of a Church*, 
because the Sacred Records are the proper mediums 
of ascertaining theological truth. 

We ought, on the other hand, to be solicitous that 
we form a true and genuine idea of the Analogy of 
Faith. " This Analogy," says Danhawer, " is ex- 
" planatory of the harmony and perfect consistency of 
w the Divine Oracles; and it is founded on the univer- 
iC sal agreement of the Inspired Writers — the mouth 
Ci of all the prophets." See Danhawer, who speaks 
largely on this point; and compare with his, the brief, 
but clear and perspicuous observations made by Pfeif- 
fer, " Herm. Sac." p. 168, &c.(c) 

5, A Consideration of the Affections. When this 
help is neglected, the Expositor of Scripture must 
necessarily err. This is abundantly shown by Luther, 
hi various parts of his works; by Wolffgang Franzius, 
in his treatise " de Interpretatione Scripturae Sa- 
crae," who expounds it by a portion of Holy Writ; 
and by Flacius, Danhauerus, &c. Daily experience 
likewise evinces, that familiar discourse derives «luch 
of its energy and perspicuity from the Affections of 
the speakers; and that the same words, pronounced 
under the influence of different emotions, convey very 
different meanings, This valuable help requires a se« 


parate consideration; for which, see the Treatise on 
the affections appended to this work. 

6. A Consideration of the Order observed by the 
Sacred Penmen in proposing their Subjects. When 
this help is judiciously exercised, it opens the way to 
a deep acquaintance with the meaning of an author; 
when it is neglected, many things necessarily remain 
obscure and ambiguous. By duly adverting to it, how 
fully intelligible do the following passages become; 2 
Pet. i. 5, 6, 7. Rom. v. 1,2, 3, 4, 5, &c. This 
help indeed merits particular attention; though it is 
seldom obvious to those who are destitute of experi- 
ence in divine things. 

7. A Consideration of Circumstances; — Who? 
What? Where? By what means? Why? How? Wlien? 
This help may act as a supplement to the others ; for, 
when any thing is neglected that tends to explain and 
confirm the literal meaning, such Circumstances care- 
fully examined, will disclose it. It is, however, better 
to make use of this help in applying all the others. 
See Danhauerus " Hermen. Sac." p. 358. 

II. Special Helps to Exposition, are Rules form- 
ed by those who have made Scripture their study, for 
the purpose of assisting in the interpretation of parti- 
cular texts, or in the exposition of particular books. 
Hence, they are of two kinds: such as are used in any 
part of Scripture indifferently; and such as are applied 


to a certain description of writers, or to the expound- 
ing of their peculiar subjects and texts ; which latter 
we may term Particular Helps. 

Rules of this kind may be learned by practice in 
reading the Scriptures; but the labours of others will 
also prove useful/ " Rules formed by others/' says 
Danhauerus (" Herm. Sac." p. 390) are not to be 
" neglected. They are like the counsels of a courier 
" who has finished a journey which we are about to 
" commence; and the tendency of whose instructions 
a is to render the path of those who follow less ha- 
" zardous and difficult." Flacius has given us, in the 
second part of his " Clavis Scripturae," a collection 
of rules, composed of such as he had himself remarked 
to be highly useful in the study of the Scripture; and 
of others, which he had gleaned from the writings of the 
Fathers. Danhauerus in his " Herm. Sac." proposes 
the following: 

1 . The most simple is the most genuine meaning. 

2. The literal is preferable to the figurative sense. 

3. The Scriptures are to be taken in their widest 
signification, when they are not limited by the Holy 
Spirit; especially in the descriptions that are given of 
the gracious blessings of the Gospel. 

4. A less portion of Holy Writ must be interpreted 
agreeably to a larger; and one single passage is not to 


rs study of the scbiptures. 

be explained in contrariety to many others, but cob* 
sistently with them. 

5. The Scriptures sometimes denominate an action 
or thing from the object to which it finally refers. 

6. The Sacred Writings sometimes affirm, that a 
thing which did not succeed, was neyer done. 

7. The Scripture often accommodates its language, 
not so much to facts as they exist, as to the opinions 
of men respecting them. 

8. What is said of Christ in the Inspired Volume, 
is sometimes understood of Him alone, as the Head 
of the Church; sometimes of the Body only, which is 
the Church; and sometimes of both the Head and the 

9. When a word which had preceded, is repeated 
in connexion with a conditional, or some similar par- 
ticle, it, in the latter instance, imports an Intention; 
so that what, in the first place, is said to be done, is, 
in the second, said to have been done resolutely, on 
full consideration. Thus — " What I have written, I 
have written." John xix. 22. 

10. The name " Children" is not always indicative 
of a certain age ; but is, sometimes an expression of 
love and tenderness. See John's Episttes. 

11. An action begun, or about to be begun, is 
sometimes said to be finished. 


12. A thing is often attributed to one who for- 
merly was a remarkable example of any action. See 
Jude 11. (d) 

Glassius has likewise furnished Rules of this kind 
(" Philologia Sacra," Book 2,) and there are many 
interspersed in the Commentaries of Guierus, Schmi- 
dius, &c. and in the writings of the Rabbins. It is, 
however, an easy matter, to draw up rules according 
to some assumed hypothesis; and, therefore, 1. Their 
authority should be examined, and 2. They must al- 
ways be applied with caution, (e) 

III. Particular Helps are those Rules which 
Lave been made for the purpose of interpreting par- 
ticular writers and books. Glassius, Flacius, and 
others, have drawn up some which are applicable to 
Allegories, Types, Parables, &c. They likewise have 
some profitable thoughts, in reference to the writings 
of Paul, John, &c. Danhauerus, in his " Herme- 
neutica Sacra," presents us with several Canons for 
the elucidation of the Prophets, Psalms, Types, Pa- 
rable, and Laws: and it has been already observed, 
that Chemnitz has furnished others explanatory of the 
Decalogue. On such principles, Rules might be 
formed for the Lord's Prayer, &c. 

Having considered Internal Helps according to 
the classification of General ^ Special* and Pafticu- 


lav j we proceed to offer some remarks on Helps Ex- 

External Helps are those which may be subor- 
dinate^ used, in more clearly ascertaining and ex- 
pounding the sense of Scripture; though it is to be 
observed, that, in all things pertaining to eternal sal- 
vation, the Scriptures sufficiently explain themselves. 

External Helps are for the purpose of throwing 
light on certain abstruse passsages, and on their lite- 
ral sense: as Antiquities; the Rites and Customs of 
the ancients (things frequently alluded to in the In- 
spired Writings;) Geography, Chronology, Natural 
History, &,c. ; which, through the goodness of God, 
have been respectively treated, by men mighty in the 
Scriptures, in order to their elucidation. (/) 

In the use of these Helps, both deficiency and ex- 
cess are blameable. They who can admire nothing 
but their own meditations, and know not how to make 
Externals subservient to the edification of themselves 
and others, do most certainly commit the former error; 
while those who depend on the authority of expositors 
alone, and receive, as infallible,, whatever pleases the 
learned, commit the latter fault, and infringe on the 
privileges of the Christian, the gifts of the Spirit, and 
the full assurance (xXniftQtpiai) of faith. They are 
most secure who take the middle path; who neither 
rely on their own wisdom, nor are fascinated by the 


authority of others; but learn happily to conjoin In- 
ternal with External Helps. 

Internal Helps must be decidedly preferred to those 
which are External. Indeed, the latter are rather to 
be used in authorising and confirming the sense when 
it is discovered; er in determining it when, after all 
Internal Helps have been exhausted, it remains doubt- 
ful. Hence, they who labour through vast Com- 
mentaries, or devote their time to the purposes of 
forming selections, and digesting them into common 
places, will make but small advancement; and cannot 
reasonably expect to attain to an accurate and sound 
talent for interpreting Scripture. To write a Com- 
ment is one thing; but to develope the sense of the 
Sacred Volume is another. 

Commentators are generally diffuse on critical; 
polemical ahd common-place subjects: and seldom 
examine very minutely into the spiritual sense of 
Scripture. We must therefore be careful to select 
such Commentaries as are most agreeable to the ob- 
ject we have in view; and especially such as evince the 
illumination of that Spirit who speaks in the Sacretl 
Oracles. This is essential ; for if we cannot under- 
stand the Scriptures, without the aid of the divine 
Spirit who dictated them; is it possible to derive as- 
sistance from a Commentator who has presumed to 
judge of spiritual things, while he himself is car- 


Some valuable remarks on this subject, by Me- 
lanctLon, deserve to be noticed here: the reader may 
see tbem in his treatise " de Origine et Auctoritate 
Verbi." — u The gift of interpretation indeed, be- 
longs not to the ungodly, but is with that assembly 
which is governed and sanctified by the Holy Spirit; 
for St. Paul says — ' Let the prophets speak two or 
three; and let the other judge; however, if any thing 
be revealed to another that sitteth by, let the first 
hold his peace.' Interpretation then is a revelation 
made by the Holy Spirit, and since the ungodly 
are the organs of Satan, it cannot be made in them. 
Hence, how much soever some men may excel in 
learning and polity, the interpretation of Scripture 
appertains not to them, but to the regenerate ; be- 
cause the natural man receiveth not the things of the 
Spirit of God, which are spiritually discerned." 1 
Cor. ii. 

Immediately antecedent to this remark, Melancthon 
has another: " When the ordinary succession and 
government of the Church were enjoyed by blas- 
phemous, idolatrous, and ungodly men, God raised up 
Prophets and others, who were not in the order of 
succession, to reprovet he sins of the high and infe- 
rior priests. This is evident, as it respects the pro- 
phets Elijah, Elisha, Isaiah, and Amos; whom the 
Lord endued with the gift of interpretation, at a pe- 
riod when the priests were enemies to the Truth- 


So, in the time of Christ, the gift of Interpretation 
was not possessed by Annas, Caiaphas, the Scribes, 
and the Pharisees, though they were the heads of the 
visible Church, and considered themselves to be the 
only true Church and people of God. The gift was, 
at that time, confined to the Church and assembly of 
Zacharias, Elizabeth, the Baptist, the Shepherds, 
Simeon, Anna, the Apostles, &c, who were all con- 
spicuous for their purity, and the light of heavenly 
instruction. It therefore becomes our duty not to 
listen to those who, for the sake of wealth and ho- 
nours, assume the right of interpretation, without be- 
ing themselves influenced by the knowledge and fear 
of that God; who as the sole Author, is the sole In- 
terpreter of Scripture; and who, by his Spirit, im- 
parts the gift to those only who are pious, renewed, 
and lovers of the Word." 

Caution is requisite in another respect; namely, 
lest we accumulate External things without measure; 
for the perusal of Scripture is too easily neglected, 
when we are searching after many and various Ex- 
ternal helps. We may safely assure those who read 
the word with devotion and simplicity, that they will 
derive more light and profit from such a practice, and 
from connecting meditation with it (in the manner so 
exquisitely described by David, Psal. i.,) than can 
ever be acquired from drudging through an infinite 
variety of unimportant minutiae They who search 


the Scriptures for the edification of themselves and 
others, and not for the sake of vanity, or to please 
men, will learn, from what has been advanced, to 
avoid the abuse of External things, and to build their 
knowledge of divine truth, on foundations firm and 

It is proper to observe that many things " hard to 
be understood," which will occur in Expository 
Reading, may be passed over until a greater proficien- 
cy has been made in spiritual wisdom. They who 
observe no medium, but seek to know every thing at 
once, are urged by this insatiable and irrational itch 
for knowledge, among a crowd of Commentators, and 
there they remain. They inconsiderately perplex 
their minds; add to the difficulties with which the 
pursuit of knowledge is attended; and, after all, re- 
main ignorant of the " truth which is after godli- 
ness." In Expository Reading, every one must con- 
sider his own strength. A skilful architect first lays 
the foundation; but he does not immediately super- 
add the roof; and that student will ever make the 
most progress who, rising from less to greater points ; 
and from the more easy to the more difficult, moves 
on in regular and happy gradation. 

When the Literal Sense is ascertained, some give 
it 1. In a succinct Paraphrase; others, 2. In a pro- 
lix Exposition. 


I. A Paraphrase may be cither Historical or 
Textual. The former pursues the argument of a 
book historically, and aims at giving the sense and 
meaning of the Writer in perspicuous language; the 
latter assumes the Person of the Writer, accom- 
panies the text at the bottom of the page, and gives 
all phrases and expressions, in words that are sim- 
ple and obvious. 

In order to render a Textual Paraphrase just^ five 
things are requisite: 

1 . The Literal Sense must be fully known. 

2. All Propositions that are contained in the text, 
whether they be expressed or implied, must be ex- 
plicitly and separately considered; lest any thing in 
the text should be neglected. 

3. Instead of the more obscure, emphatic, and am- 
biguous words, contained in the propositions formed 
from the text, others should be substituted of a de- 
finite and obvious signification. The Emphasis may 
also be more fully shown. 

4. Those which admit of it, may be expressed in 
the clearer words of Scripture itself; this alone is 
always equivalent to copious Annotations. 

5. These Propositions thus explained, must be 
connected together, by means of copulative, casual, 
and conclusive particles, as the context may happen 
to require. 


II. The prolix Exposition of the text chiefly re* 
spects the Analysis of it, and unites Logical with 
Expository Reading. If therefore we institute these 
Readings aright, we shall have no cause to complain 
either of the order, or of the matter. We ought 
however be tenacious of the natural order, unless 
there be good grounds for deviation, 




Doctrinal Reading is that by which we so appre* 
hend the truths contained in Scripture, as to derive 
thence a just and saving acquaintance with the na* 
ture and will of God. 

It supposes in the person who institutes it, the sub* 
sequent requisites. 

1. A Knowledge of Exposition; for without Ex* 
position, Divinity rests on an uncertain foundation, 
since uo Proposition can otherwise be resolved into its 
first principles. 

2. The Faculty of judging of the Scope, and of 
theological doctrines spiritually (1 Cor. ii> 15;) and 
not naturally, as the dogmas of Aristotle would be 
considered. Hence, this Reading, to be instituted 
in a consistent and profitable manner, requires that 
the reader be spiritual. Augustine remarks with 
the greatest truth, that, " in the Scriptures, our 
eyes see with more or less clearness, according as 
we die more or less to this present world; and, on 
(he contrary, in proportion as we live to this world a 


we do not discern .spiritual things." See Book II,. 
C. 7. " de Doctrina Christiana."(a) 

3. A Disposition to reduce the Doctrines of Scrip- 
ture to practice: for the Saviour says — u If any man 
will do the will of him (that sent me,) he shall know 
of the doctrine, whether it be of God: or whether I 
speak of myself." John vii. 17. 

4. A high Esteem for divine Truth, as that which is 
to be defended against assaults by the (to yeypcmTctt) 
"thus it is written;" — to be sought in its proper 
Seat, if not with anxious care, yet certainly with the 
greatest assiduity;— -and to be confirmed by sound ar- 
gument, and canvassed with deep attention, in order 
that its purity may be protected against every inno- 
vation. Unless, therefore, we reduce the precepts 
of Scripture to practice, mere intellect will, in these 
respects, avail nothing. 

These things being premised, we observe, that in 
order to a right institution of Doctrinal Reading, the 
particulars following must be attended to : 

1. The Argument of the whole Book and its Gen- 
eral Scope (on which every thing else depends) should 
be duly weighed. 

2. The Principal Doctrine of the whole Argu- 
ment, is to be accurately formed in the words of the 
Sacred Writers. 


3. The Special Doctrines must be pointed out, and 
the mode in which they arise out of the Principal 

4. The doctrines expressed must be distinguished 
from those which are implied: the former are to be 
particularly noted; and the latter are to be confirms 
from passages where they are expressed, 

5. The Law and the Gospel should be rightly dis- 
tinguished, and the things appertaining to each, accu- 
rately separated; because they constitute the princi- 
pal classes of theological doctrines. 

In order to illustrate these points by example, let 
us advert to St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians 
Here we have — 

1. The General Scope of the apostle; namely, to 
conciliate the minds of Jewish and Gentile converts, 
and to confirm both in the purity of the faith in Christ 
Jesus, as well as in holiness of life. 

2. The Principal Doctrines: see Chap. ii. 11, 
12, 13; and also 19, 20; and Chap. iii. 6. 

3. The Special Doctrines; which are the six fol- 
lowing. 1 . God constituted the Jews his own peo- 
ple, promised them Christ, and eternal life in Him. 
2. The Jews possess this prerogative^ that they first 
hoped in Christ. 3. The salvation of the Gentiles 
flows from mercy, through the grace of Jesus Christ, 



4. Our salvation depends not on the righteousness of 
works; but, on mere grace. 5. The way of salva- 
tion, as it respects both Jews and Gentiles, is the 
same. 6. None, but those who are justified, can 
perform good works. 

4. The Doctrine Implied; thus (Chap. ii. 12,) 
the state of the Gentiles, antecedent to their conver- 
sion to Christ, was a state of condemnation. This 
is Expressed, Rom. Chap. i. 

5. The Law contains things to be done; the Gos- 
pel, things to be believed: the entire foundation of 
this epistle is therefore evangelical. However 
throughout the whole of it, the general Application 
relates to the Law, so far as it is observed by believ- 
ers. — See also the Analysis of the Epistle to the 
Ephesians appended to this work. 

The Doctrinal Books, such as the Epistles of the 
New Testament, should especially be perused, be- 
cause they peculiarly abound in Expressed Doctrines; 
and because the Doctrines are ascertained with ease 
in these parts of Holy Writ. 

The consideration of the abstruser Doctrines may 
be deferred, until the student have made greater ad- 
vances in the knowledge of fundamental truth. Those 
which are most essential to salvation and to a full as- 
surance (irlypoQoptu) of faith, should be first learned 
by a living and practical acquaintance with them; and^ 


tnen, the transition to Doctrines more profound, but 
less essential, will become pleasant and easy. 

When Doctrines are well known, they may be di- 
gested into a certain order, which must nevertheless 
comport with the subject, and the intention of the 
Holy Spirit. All of them may be referred to God, 
to man, or to Christ the Mediator between both. 

Since Jesus is the very Soul of Scripture, and the 
Way by which we have access to the Father, he who, 
in Doctrinal Reading, does not fix his eyes on Him, 
must read in vain. Truth and Life are attainable only 
through this Way. To know Christ and the Doc- 
trines concerning Christ, only. in theory, is not the 
Soul of Scripture; it is faith in him, and that imita- 
tion of him which flows from faith. — It is, however, to 
be remarked, that some texts treat expressly of Christ, 
and inculcate either faith in him, or the imitation of 
him; some contain prophecies concerning the Sa- 
viour, fulfilled, or remaining to be fulfilled; others 
exhibit a type and figure of Christ; while others are 
to be referred to him by the Analogy of Faith, which, 
as to all the articles of faith, is entirely founded on 




Inferential Reading has for its object, the dedu- 
cing; of Inferences or Conclusions by legitimate con- 
sequence, from texts; when the Literal Sense is ex- 
plored, and the Truths expressed have been fully exa- 
mined. These Inferences may be either theoretical 
and mediately practical ; or, they may be immediately 

The foundation of this Reading is the perpetual 
analogy and harmony of things sacred; which is such, 
that, from one truth rightly known, all others depend, 
being linked, as it were, together. He who keeps 
this in mind, and is versed in the Sacred Oracles, may 
easily diffuse himself ) from one word, over the whole 

It is essential to a right institution of this Read- 
ing, that the mind be endued with a living knowledge 
and " form (virorvTracns) of sound words in faith and 
love." It cannot otherwise be prosecuted in a con- 
sistent and profitable way, nor can the inexhaustible 
fulness of the sacred text be else perceived. Experi- 
ence, will, however, suggest every thing necessary to 
them who prosecute Inferential Reading. 


The Sources whence Inferences are drawn are 
either themselves Inherent in the text; — or External; 
that is, taken from other parts of Scripture, and col- 
lated with that under consideration. 

Sources are Inherent, when Inferences are de- 
duced as follows: 

1. From the Words, and their Emphasis: 

2. From the Structure and Order of the things 
contained in the text. 

3. From the Affections of the Sacred Writer. 

Sources are External, when a collation of the 
text is instituted — 1. With the Scope; 2. With An- 
tecedents and Consequents; and, 3. With Parallel 
Passages* The consideration of Circumstances — 
who? what? where? does not so much constitute a new 
Source, as yield a more favourable opportunity of 
drawing inferences from other Sources. 

If there be different kinds of Inferences, these 
Sources may be differently applied. Indeed, some 
Inferences are profitable for doctrine; others, for in- 
struction ; others, for reproof; and others, for comfort. 
Some are useful to confirm faith; others, to elicit love 
from faith; and others, to nourish hope. Some have 
respect to piety grounded on faith, hope, and love; 


others instil holy wisdom; and others inculcate sacred 
eloquence. Some are theoretical, and only virtually 
practical; while others are in themselves formally 

Let us cite an example from 2 Tim. i. 1. — " Be 
not thou therefore ashamed of (lie testimony of out 
Lord nor of me his prisoner; bid be thou partaker of 
the afflictions of the Gospel." — Observe here, it is 
taken for granted, that the Literal Sense of this pas- 
sage, and the truths expressed in it, are sufficiently 
obvious to the reader. It is supposed that he is aware 
of the two-fold proposition which it contains, the one 
negative, and the other affirmative ; that the former 
has a two-fold object, real and personal ; and that, by 
force of opposition, the latter no less respects this two- 
fold object than the former. 

Inferences deduced from the first Inherent Source. 

u Be not thou ashamed." — In times of persecu- 
tiori, Boldness is required in our testimony of Christ. 
Again — It is not the least step towards apostacy, 
when a man is ashamed of the testimony of Christ; 
for, thus, the Spirit of courage with which believers 
are endued, is denied. 

" The testimony."—- Boldness of confession is in- 


fcreased, in no small degree, by the consideration that 
we are witnesses, and not the first confessors: we 
having iC a cloud of witnesses." Heb. xii. 1. 

" Of our Lord." — He who is ashamed of the Gos- 
pel, is ashamed of the Lord himself, and completely 
denies that he is His servant. Again — Since we have 
a Lord in heaven, we need not fear earthly lords. 

" Prisoner." — It is not Christian but diabolical 
prudence, to pay regard to Christ's members, while 
they enjoy outward prosperity, and to be ashamed of 
them in seasons of persecution. 

" His." — The bonds and wounds of Christians, 
are the bonds and wounds of Christ. Again — A 
Christian in bonds, is not the servant of man, but of 

" Be thou partaker of the afflictions." — Fellow- 
ship in afflictions is consolatory, on account of ap- 
proaching fellowship in glory; for, in the Gospel, all 
Christians labour together. Again — He who preach- 
es the Gospel without afflictions, is far removed from 
the example of the apostle. 

" Of the Gospel." — The Gospel proclaims eternal 
joys in the midst of calamities. 


Inferences deduced from the second Inherent Source. 

A consideration of the two-fold Proposition tend- 
ing to the same Scope, evolves the Inference, that 
He who is ashamed of the testimony of Christ, is de- 
sirous of avoiding impending afflictions, though he 
may endeavour to palliate his fear by the most spe- 
cious arguments. Again Apostacy is so much to be 
deprecated, that we must not only carefully watch 
against the fear of afflictions: but, lest we should 
apostatize, the mind ought to be constantly prepared 
to undergo them with alacrity. 

From a consideration of the two-fold Object, placed 
thus — " Be not thou ashamed of the testimony of our 
Lord, nor of Me, his prisoner" — it follows, that he 
who is ashamed of suffering Christians, is ashamed of 
the testimony of the Lord himself. 

The implied opposition of this object in the word 
a Gospel," authorizes the Inference, that — He who 
avoids the afflictions which result from the faithful 
preaching of the Gospel, is ashamed both of Christ 
and his holy servants. 

Inferences deduced from the third Inherent Source. 
The hope and confidence which the apostle lias in 


the Gospel is so great, that he not only stands in no 
need of consolation himself, though now cast into a 
prison: but he can even urge others to witness for 
Christ. Hence we infer, that The Spirit of God in- 
spires believers with such courage and magnanimity, 
that they rise above the dread of bonds; and, when 
cast into prison, seek not those external comforts 
which man can impart, but abound in strong inward 
consolations, and become a source of encouragement 
and joy to those who are weak. Again — Paul's love 
to Christ is so ardent, that he not only bears testimo- 
ny of him in word, but retains this boldness in cir- 
cumstances the most adverse. He will be faithful 
even unto bonds and death; and, in short, he exer- 
cises the utmost care, lest his bonds should shake any 
in their attachment to the Saviour, and in the profes- 
sion of their faith. Hence arise the subsequent In- 
ferences : 

1. Christ must be loved sincerely. 

2. Sincerity is evidenced by bearing testimony of 
Christ. ' 

3. Our testimony of Christ is to be borne, not only 
in prosperous times, but likewise in seasons of ad- 

4. We ought not to be confounded or ashamed, if 
our testimony of Christ be rejected 


5. To be imprisoned for the name of the Saviour, 
is a glorious evidence that our testimony of him is 
sincere and constant. 

6. We ought not to be deterred from confessing 
Christ, because others have shrunk from the duty. 

7. Love to Jesus should possess such influence 
over the soul, that, were it to expose us to the se- 
verest calamities, and to inevitable death, we should 
remain unmoved (1 Cor. xv. 58. Col. i. 23.) and 
even unabashed. 

8. Firm faith derives so much strength from love to 
the Saviour, that it renders us careless of ourselves, in 
seasons of affliction, and only anxious that none be turn- 
ed aside from the right way. Vide 1 Thess. iii. 1 — 5. 

Again, Paul was actuated by so fervent a desire of 
fulfilling his apostolic office,, in proclaiming the Gos- 
pel, that he preached Christ even to bonds; and now 
that he was imprisoned and enjoyed less liberty of 
speech, he incited others by his letters, to bear their 
testimony of Christ without fear. (Compare Chap, 
ii. Ver. 2.) Hence we deduce the following Infer- 

1 . A minister should make use of his utmost exer- 
tions in fulfilling his office. 

2. A minister who abandons his rare for thp cl 


when men oppose obstacles and hindrances, does not 
fulfil his duty. 

3. A faithful minister, when restrained by perse- 
cution from preaching, casts his eyes on others who 
do not fear to have fellowship in suffering; or, who 
seem ready to turn aside ; &,c. 

Inferences deduced from the first External Source. 

The text may be accommodated to the General 
Scope of the whole epistle or book. The General Scope 
of the epistle to Timothy is as follows. Paul wish- 
ing Timothy to come to him, endeavours previously 
to prepare and fortify his mind against the calamities 
which, at that period threatened the church at Ephe- 
sus, and especially that at Rome. Here, if we con- 
sider the Subject, the following Inferences are dedu- 

1 . Calamities often happen to Christians suddenly 
(not however by chance, but in the gracious provi- 
dence of God.) 

2. When calamity befals Christians suddenly, it is 
possible for them to be cast down from their stead- 

3. They should therefore be seasonably warned of 


it, by those experienced Christians who foresee its 

4. When thus warned, they are better able to com- 
pose their minds, in order to meet the impending ca- 

If we advert to the person of Paul, the following 
Inferences are deducible. 

1 . It is right for a minister to call fellow-labourers 
to his assistance, not only in prosperous times, but 
also in seasons of adversity. 

2. It is, however, incumbent on him not to do this 
precipitately, but carefully to prepare for the events 
which seem about to take place. 

3. It is also his duty to fortify the mind of the 
person whom he intends to call. 

4. If he should perceive any thing in himself, that 
is likely to offend the weaker mind of the other whom 
he purposes to call, or to deter him from affording the 
necessary assistance, it becomes his part seasonably to 
anticipate and remove the scruples, which the other 
may possibly imbibe. 

If we advert to the Person of Timothy, we may 
derive the subsequent Inferences. 

1. A minister ought neither to accelerate this de- 


parture from his own church, nor defer going to ano- 
ther, through fear of calamities. 

2. He ought to fortify his mind against such cala- 
mities, in order that he may be " a workman that 
needeth not to be ashamed." 2 Tim. ii. 15. 

3. The danger of others ought not to intimidate 
him, but render him cautious and prudent; and ra- 
ther create in his bosom, a like readiness to endure 

With reference to this Source, we might likewise 
consider the church at Ephesus from which Timothy 
was summoned, and that at Rome, to confirm which 
was the object of his being called; and, thence, de- 
duce many Inferences concerning the dismissal of mi- 
nisters from a church, and their call to one. 

The words of the text may also be separately ac-* 
commodated to the Scope; and, thence, Inferences 
theoretical and practical, will be deduced, in the fol- 
lowing manner. 

" Be not thou ashamed." — Paul hastened Timo- 
thy, but he pre-required of him, boldness. Hence, a 
minister can promise himself little or no assistance 
from a fellow-labourer who is not possessed of spiri- 
tual boldness; since, through fear of shame and im- 


prisonment, such a one will impede, rather than acce- 
lerate the course of the word of God. 

" The testimony." — Paul had borne his testimo- 
ny, and, now that he was a prisoner, he continued to 
bear it; yet he required the testimony of Timothy. 
Hence, it is not of small consequence, that the testi- 
mony of God's servants be multiplied. 

" Of the Lord." — It is a servant of the Lord that 
summons, but he summons to the business of the Lord. 
Hence, we must listen to the voice of the Lord's ser- 

• vants, especially if it concern not human convenience ? 
but the Lord's glory. 

u Our." — Paul and Timothy were both the ser- 
vants of Jesus Christ. Phil. i. 1. Hence, they who 
have one common Lord, and are engaged in one com- 
mon service, may mutually stir up each other to seek 
their Lord's glory; which is to be promoted by uni- 

*ty, &c. 

The Special Scope cannot here be sought in ante- 
cedents, because the Special Inference is contained in 
this verse; and, therefore, the antecedent words have 
reference to the proposition expressed in this verse, 
as to the Special Scope; just as any middle term is 
referred to its own conclusion. With respect to con- 
sequents, the proposition itself is as a Special Scope; 


and the things which might be considered here, recur 
in the following Source. 

Inferences from the second External Source. 

Here we may again institute a general, special, 
and particular collation and deduction of Inferences. 

If the text form one perfect subject, it may be col- 
Mated with the antecedents and consequents. The 
whole epistle is of one subject; and, therefore per- 
tains to antecedents and consequents. Thus, St. 
Paul's first exhortation is, to undergo afflictions for 
the cause of Christ. This he endeavours to enforce 
by very cogent arguments; and he frequently repeats 
it, with the addition of new .arguments, throughout 
the whole epistle. Hence flow the following Infer- 

1 . A subject of great importance is not to be treat- 
ed indifferently. 

2. If danger of apostacy threaten even the esta- 
blished Christian, it should be guarded against with 
the utmost care. 

3. He who is bound to invite another to undergo 
hardships for the cause of Christ, is also bound to use 
wisdom, in fortifying him against fear; and diligence 


in enjoining on Lira the necessity of enduring such 

A special collation may be instituted, by separately 
collating the entire text with entire verses antecedent 
and consequent. From an immense number of In- 
ferences that might be deduced, we present the fol- 
lowing, which result from a collation with the ante- 
cedent verse 7. 

1 . Before we animate a combatant to engage in the 
holy war, we should put arms into his hands. 

2. Unless the Spirit of God prepare the heart, we 
vainly attempt to animate by words. 

3. A fearful heart is not capable of the testimony 
of Christ, nor of enduring afflictions for the promotion 
of the Lord's glory. 

Inferences deduced from Collation ivith verse 6. 

1 . The gift which a minister of a church may have 
received from God^Ss to be stirred up, in order not 
only to teach, but also to suffer. 

2. He who permits the laying on of the hands of 
the presbytery, ought to suffer, if it be the will of 
Providence, the laying on of the hands of the civil 


Inference , from Collation with verse 5. 

Faith received from ancestors, and steadily pre- 
served, may, when brought to remembrance in a sea- 
son of persecution, happily prevent apostacy. 

Inference j from Collation ivith verse 4. 

The godly, though surrounded by calamities, and 
expecting nothing but affliction, can nevertheless re- 
joice, and enjoy the most delightful communion with 
each other. 

Inference j from Collation ivith verse 3, 

We ought to offer up prayers night and aay, in be- 
half of those who are about to suffer for the testimony 
of Jesus. 

The above Inferences all flow from Antecedents, 
and if we now advert to Consequents, we shall find 
that a similar abundance is deducible from them. 

Inference, from Collation with verse 9. 

When our salvation and the grace of God are 


called to remembrance, they dispel all fear of tempo* 
ral affliction. 

Inference , from Collation, with verse 10, 

Greater boldness in affliction, should be evidenced 
under the New Testament dispensation, because 
Christ has really appeared; and, thus, confirmed our 
faith in his passion, resurrection, &*c. 

A Particular Collation is when the several Words 
of the text, as far as they relate to the several Words 
antecedent and consequent, are collated with them, in 
order that fresh Inferences may be derived. This 
Collation cannot very easily be exhausted, because 
words may be collated together without end. 

" Be not thou ashamed" — verse 8. with " a sound 
mind:" — verse 7. 

1. Carnal wisdom is easily put to shame by adverse 

2. The Spirit of a sound mind so composes the 
soul, that afflictions do not even produce shame. 

u Be not thou ashamed" — with " love:" verse 7. 

cc There is no fear in love ; but perfect love casteth 
out fear, because fear hath torment: he that feareth 
is not made perfect in love." This is the language 
of John., 1 Epist. iv. 18 e 


" Be not thou ashamed" u with power, 5 ' — verse 7. 

The Christian's power is internal, and confirms 
and strengthens the mind in Christ, in order that it 
may not be moved away from its steadfastness. 

The Third External Source will, without difficulty :> 
furnish a far greater abundance of Inferences. Here, 
we may advert to Parallelisms adequate and inade- 
quate, and carefully compare the words of the text 
with all parallel passages: as Rom. i. 16. 2 Cor. iv, 
6—11. Phil. i. 19, 20. 1 Thess. iii. 2. 4. Matt. v. 
10. 11. Matt. x. 31. 33. 1 Pet. iii. 13. 1 Pet. iv. 
13. Rom. viii. 17. Acts xiv. 22. Phil. iii. 10. Col. 
i. 24. 2 Thess. i. 1. 1 Tim. vi. 12. Heb. xL 12. 1 
Pet. i. and ii. 21. Rev. vii. 14. 

In the same manner as it was intended that Timo- 
thy should be confirmed and fortified against affliction 
by the words of Paul, is it purposed that all Chris- 
tians should be thus fortified and confirmed by the 
foregoing passages. Hither are to be referred all 
parts of the New and Old Testaments which speak 
of bearing the cross of Christ and of denying self; 
but especially, those which relate to the office of 
a minister of a church, and to the faith required of 
them in times of persecution. The parallel words 
are not, however, to be considered apart, but only as 
they are compared with the text; neither are other 
Inferences to be attended to, than those which natu 


rally flow from texts when collated. In Phil. i. 19. 
and Rom. i 16. Paul affirms that he is not ashamed 
of the testimony of Christ; and it is this which he re- 
quires of Timothy in the text under our notice. Hencej 
Faithful teachers confidently demand that from others, 
which they experimentally know is not impossible. 
Again, — He who inculcates patience, manifests it by 
example, before he enjoins it by precept, hi Rom. 
viii. 17, 18. the proportion between temporal cala- 
mity and eternal joy is said to be nothing. Hence, — 
The hope of everlasting glory represses all shame of 
temporal afflictions. 

It is requisite in all cases, but particujarly so in 
the present, correctly to distinguish whether the In- 
ferences be homogeneous, that is, flow from an entire 
text; or heterogeneous, that is, result from only a part 
of a text. As Inferences are nothing more than Con- 
clusions which may be proved from a text viewed in 
itself, or in collation with some other passage; the 
strength of the proof must be either in an entire text 
or else in some part of a text; which, if carefully ob- 
served, renders Inferences far more evident. 

The latter Sources are termed External, from a 
comparison with the Inherent Sources, which suggest 
Inferences only from the text itself. No Sources can 
be denominated External, unless in this view; because 
all Inferences must, of necessity, evolve from the 


text The only difference is, that some result from 
it when considered by itself; while others flow from a 
collation with other passages. 

If, in the respective Sources, the student take into 
consideration, Circumstances, as, who? ichat? &c. 
they will easily furnish him with Inferences. Tin's 
remark we noticed in treating of the Scope. 

The reader may proceed to consider the different 
kinds of Inferences and their various application, as 
expressed above. In this view, we shall be presented 
with such a profusion of them, as it would weary hu- 
man nature to exhaust. Some, for example, apply to 
piety; others, to wisdom; others, to holy eloquence. 
Piety consists in faith that works by love. Hence — - 

1 . It is the character of faith, when true and saving, 
and wrought by the Spirit, not to be ashamed of ca* 
lamities, but to endure them with an intrepid mind. 

2. Christian love does not relinquish public com- 
munion, on account of persecution or the hazard of 
life ; the glory of God requiring this of us. 

3. It is the highest Christian wisdom, to undergo 
afflictions on account of the Gospel, with the simpli- 
city of the lamb and dove. 

4. It is the duty of a wise teacher, not only to in- 
struct the church committed to him, but, especially to 
prepare the minds of proper persons by wholesome ad- 


monitions, in order that some such may be always 
ready to continue the preaching of the Gospel. See 
2 Tim. ii. 2. 

Paul, as is usual with him, strongly inculcates the 
same thing, by the force of an Opposite Proposition. 
Hence — A Tautology in holy eloquence, is not to be 
rashly censured, nor is the repetition of the same 
thing, in different words, to be considered as a fault. 
The necessity of the thing itself, and the weakness of 
human nature, very often render frequent repetition 




Practical Reading is essentially necessary and 
eminently useful; and its object is the application of 
the Scriptures to faith and practice. This application 
respects either others, or ourselves; and, of course, 
it would be . absurd to apply Divine Truth to our 
neighbour, before we have done so to our own hearts. 
To deduce practical doctrines and inferences from 
Scripture, and to apply them in an historical way, is 
not properly Practical Reading, which chiefly respects 
the affections of the person who institutes it. 

Practical Reading is of such a nature, that it may 
be prosecuted by an illiterate person; for the applica- 
tion of Scripture which it enjoins, is connected with 
salvation; and therefore, if it were not within the abi- 
lity of the unlearned, it would be vain to concede to 
them, the reading of the Scriptures, We do not, 
however, deny, but that, from an acquaintance with 
the Greek and Hebrew languages, several things of 
un edifying nature may arise., which would not be so 


obvious in a translation. It is, however, sufficient, 
that all things necessary to faith and practice may be 
acquired from versions. 

The simplest Application of Divine Truth is cer- 
tainly the most profitable, if it be made with sincerity 
of mind: yet, if some advice on this subject be re- 
quired, the following observations may not be found 

Practical Application should be rightly distinguish- 
ed, as it respects its Commencement and its Continu- 
ation. It is begun with the reading of the Scriptures, 
and it is 1o be continued during the whole life. 

The Commencement of Practical Application is 
instituted with most ease, by including the text we 
are employed on and its component words, in short 
prayers or ejaculations, after its meaning has been 
properly ascertained. This method may appear sim- 
ple and puerile; but many have approved its excel- 
lency by experience, and the rich fruits which it has 

When a physician attends a patient, he, in the first 
place, ascertains his malady and its attendant symp- 
toms; then, he inquires into the causes of it; and, 
lastly, he fixes on the remedies. Just in the same 
way are we to act, in applying any portion of Holy 
Writ. — After the most natural and obvious meaning 
of the text has been ascertained^ we are, accordingly^ 


to consider first the habit of our minds, and accurately 
to compare it with the portion under our notice. If 
this be done with singleness of intention, we shall* 
plainly perceive, as in a glass, the particular faults 
under which we labour. We are then to examine into 
the causes of these faults, that we may not attempt 
to heal an internal wound with an external remedy; 
or commit any similar error. After this, we must 
look for remedies proper to correct our faults, (a) 

It is not merely external precepts that are to be 
observed, for we should solicitously search out their 
foundation; and, in this, Practical Reading should 
principally terminate; otherwise, we may accumulate 
precepts to no useful purpose. Here, the following 
directions require our attention. 

1 . We should seek for the Foundation of precepts 
in the Scriptures themselves. 

2. We should then try whether we can discover it 
in our own breasts. For instance, when we are re- 
quired to pray for our enemies, it is evident that the 
Foundation of the precept is sincere and unaffected 
love for them. We should, therefore, consider, whe- 
ther we really possess this love; because, to pray for 
them, when we have it not, must be hypocrisy. 

3. The Foundation must be laid in our hearts, be- 
fore we think of building any precepts upon it. 



In all Practical Application, wc mu; >t have our eyes 
fixed on Christ; for, ficjrt, he is to be applied to our 
• hearts, by faith, for salvation; and, secondly, he is to 
be imitated in our lives; for "He is the way, the 
truth, and the life; and no one cometh to the Father, 
but by him." The examples of men are to be copied 
only so far as they conform to this rule. "Be ye 
"followers of me," saith Paul, "even as I also ani 
"of Christ." 1 Cor. xi. 1. — Here, likewise, we 
must guard against two common errors; lest, in the 
first place, our carnal nature and depraved reason, 
which are propense to evil, should mistake vice for 
virtue; and, in the second, lest we should pay that 
regard to external excellencies, and hold them up to 
that imitation, which are due rather tc the internal 
habit of our minds. Rom. xv. 3. 

We ought frequently to read some book of Scrip- 
ture which inculcates the foundations of faith and 
practice with peculiar force and perspicuity, and stu- 
diously endeavour to render ourselves as much as pos- 
sible conformed to it. Such are the Gospel and 
Epistles of John. — This is not, however, enjoined, to 
the exclusion of other, and perhaps better plans. 

In the Commencement of Practical Reading, the 
student should attend to the following remarks: 
1. We are not to apply all things at once, but sue- 


oessively; lest our minds be overwhelmed with the 
abundance of matter. 

2. Application should commence with the» more 
easy books and passages, in which the understanding 
is not liable to be fatigued by any difficulties in the 
sense, nor to be agitated by consequent doubts. When 
a proficiency has been made, recourse may be had to 
those which are more abstruse. 

3. Application is to be instituted, not that we may 
have matter for discourse, but for practice. 

The Continuation of Practical Application should 
occupy the whole of our lives. It is assisted partly 
by our own industry, which would, however, be ineffi- 
cient without grace; and, partly, by the help of Di- 
vine grace, which is continually poured out in larger 
measures on their hearts, who receive the seed of the 
word, as into good ground. We are bound, on our 
parts, to use diligent prayer, and constant meditation 5 
— to institute perpetual collations of Scripture; — to 
be instant in our attention to what passes in others 
and ourselves; — and to exercise a vigilant observation 
of our own state of mind. Equally essential with 
these important particulars, are — conversation with 
those who have made greater advances in spiritual 
knowledge; and — the cultivation of inward peace; of 
which, the more we possess, the more we shall enter 
into the true meaning of the Scripture. 


Many other things there are, which experience 
■will readily suggest to the minds of those who are 
intent on the application of divine truth. God, in his 
infinite mercy to his children, imparts to them the in- 
ternal operation of his Spirit, at other seasons than 
when engaged in reading his Word. As he blesses 
the seed sown in the earth, and causes it to strike 
root, to flourish, and to bear abundant fruit; so does 
he incessantly nourish the incorruptible seed of his 
Word, with the richest out- pourings of his grace. 
He likewise permits the mind to be exercised with 
trials, internal and external : and, by all these means, 
the Practical Application of Scripture, is much as- 

The Application of the Sacred Oracles to others, 
whether in public or private, is attended with less 
trouble and more confidence, after sufficient care and 
devotion have been used in the duty of self-applica- 
tion: because no other way of salvation is to be 
exhibited to them, than that by which we expect 
to be saved. It however supposes in those who ex- 
ercise it, not a vain prurience, but a holy zeal for the 
conversion of souls; the spirit of experience and dis- 
cretion; a knowledge of the state of the Church; and 
that all the admonitions given, spring from faith and 
love. The Lord help us so to interpret Scripture, 
both to ourselves and otlr- 






It was intimated, in the course of the work, that we 
should notice the Order in which the Scriptures are 
to be studied; and, therefore, a few directions are 
added, on this subject, by way of conclusion. 

First, then, our Object should be agreeable to the 
divine will, and always deeply imprinted on our minds; 
namely, to promote the glory of the eternal God, by 
the edification of ourselves and others. 

The Scriptures may be studied both in a Transla- 
tion, and in an authentic edition of the Original. Our 
perusal of the Translation is to be Historical, 
Doctrinal, and Practical. 

! . The Sum and Substance of the book under con- 


sideration, and its Argument, may be fully weighed 
and considered. 

2. The Seats of Subjects may be distinguished ac- 
cording to the recommendation of Franzius, (Part I. 
Chap. 2. ;) and those which are proper, together with 
such Seats as are here and there interspersed, may 
be expressly noted. 

3. The Doctrines which are clearly and perspicu- 
ously revealed, and concerning which there is no 
doubt on the reader's mind, may be impressed on the 

4. Those which are obvious, may be applied to 
the purpose of self-edification, according to the me- 
thod prescribed in the last chapter. — Thus the pious 
student will be able to study the Scriptures with both 
pleasure and profit, at the same time that he devotes 
the chief part of his labour to the acquisition of the 
Greek and Hebrew, and opens the Way to more use- 
ful reading. 

The study of the Greek language may be followed 
by that of the Hebrew; and, finally, by that of Idiom, 
and these may be prosecuted in connexion with the 
proposed reading of the vernacular version. Indeed, 
the four branches of Scripture Reading to be attend- 
ed to in the perusal of the latter, may claim some 
share of our regard, when instituting Grammatical 


Reading, This, however, must be done indirectly; 
because the study of Languages requires our whole 

When the Grammatical Reading is completed, the 
mind will be prepared to engage in a more exact and 
particular examination of the Books of Scripture. It 
will then be proper to obtain a more perfect acquain- 
tance with the external points noticed, Part I. Chap. 
2. In doing this, it may however be well to consult 
a friend, and not waste our time over a multitude of 
books, with whose claims to our regard, we are not 
supposed to be acquainted. We may next select some 
easy book of the New Testament, such as the Epis- 
tles to Timothy, Titus, and the Philippians, and 
carefully examine them with regard to the subsequent 

1. The Sense of the Letter, and the Grammatical 
Sense. Part 1. Chap. 1. 

2. Logical Analysis. Chap. 3, 

3. The Sense purposed by the Holy Ghost. Part 
II. Chap. 1. 

4. Doctrines,whether expressed or implied. Chap. 2. 

5. Inferences. Chap. 3. 

6. Practical Application. Chap. 4. 

We must gradually proceed from the easier books 


to those which are more difficult, and especially those 
of a parallel Argument; from the New Testament to 
the Old; and here also, from the simpler books, to 
those which are more abstruse. 

With respect to External Helps, the Order in 
which they should be tised, cannot easily be deter- 
mined. In our opinion, a Tutor is requisite at this 
crisis; for, without such aid, we must be liable to er- 
ror; whereas, he will conduct us by the readiest path. 
Should the student enjoy this advantage, he need not 
be totally confined to the plan which has been propo- 
sed, and which is prescribed with a view rather to 
private studij. 

But, after all, it is he who simply aims at the glory 
of God, and thus enjoys Him as a guide and a support, 

at will put the happiest period to his labours, 
whether he be called to public exposition of Scripture, 
or to sit under the ministration of another. 






As connected with the Study of the Holy Scriptures, 



That an acquaintance with the doctrine of the Af- 
fections, is an essential requisite in the exposition o 
the Scriptures, may be proved from Reason, and from 
the Authority of Divines. 

It may be proved from Reason: for (1.) the Af- 
fections of Love, Hatred, Desire, Hope, Fear, Joy. 
Sorrow, &c. are frequently to be met with in HoK 
Writ. It is evident, therefore, that were we igno 
rant of these Affections, we should be inadequate to 


the exposition of no inconsiderable part of the Sacred 

2. When no Affections are expressed, we must ne- 
cessarily consider them implied; and that every sen- 
tence is of their dictation. In 2 Cor. ii. 4. Paul says 
himself, that he wrote the former epistle to the Co- 
rinthians, " out of much affliction and anguish of heart, 
"with many tears." In Phil. iii. 18, he speaks of 
the false teachers with " weeping'" and in 1 Thess. 
ii. 7, &c. he describes his ardent love for the Thes- 
salonians, in language replete with energy and pathos. 
Does not reason then warrant us, in concluding that 
the Affections here expressed, are, in similar passa- 
ges, implied! When Paul, addressing the converts 
(1 Cor. iv. 15.) tells them, "Though ye have ten 
thousand instructors in Christ, yet not many fathers; 
for in Christ Jesus, I have begotten you through the 
Gospel ;" is he not influenced by the Affection men- 
tioned in 1 Thess. ii. 7, &c? When he asserts, 2 
Cor. ii. 17, that " many corrupt the Word of God," 
(collate iii. 2, &c.) who but infers that he is actuated 
by the Affection noticed Phil. iii. 18? an Affection in 
which Indignation, Sorrow, Pity, &c. are blended to* 
gether. Hence, it is evident, that to neglect the Af- 
fections because they are not directly expressed, would 
be as palpable an error, as to pass them over without 
concern, where they are plainly and fully revealed, 
The indications of an Affection are aot indeed always 


similar nor uniformly perspicuous; but the judicious 
and spiritual reader, will ever find them to be fully 
adequate and sufficient. 

3. When we read the Scriptures we are bound to 
see that our natural Affections be amended and cor- 
rected; and that our hearts under the influence of the 
Holy Spirit, overflow with gracious Affections. With- 
out, however, a knowledge of these emotions, who 
can inspect the abyss of the human heart, and the 
depth of those feelings by which it is agitated ? And, 
without forming correct ideas of the Affections which 
it is proposed to imitate, how shall man, who is car- 
nal, " put them on ?" 

4. The nature of discourse confirms the position. 
Christ says (Matt. xii. 34, 35)— " How can ye, be- 
ing evil, speak good things? for out of the abundance 
of the heart, the mouth speaketh. A good man, out 
of the good treasure of the heart, bringeth forth good 
things; and an evil man, out of the evil treasure 
bringeth forth evil things." These words decidedly 
evidence, that, unless some Affection influenced the 
heart, language would not be uttered; so that a man's 
words are, in fact, the index of his feelings or Affec- 
tions. What is " the abundance of the heart," but 
those internal emotions which inform and actuate the 
human soul; and which constitute in a hoiy man, holy 
Affections; and in an unholy man, unholy Affections? 
So closely, indeed, are language and Affections con- 



nee ted together, so indissoluble is the union that sub- 
sists between them, that it would be, in effect, just aa 
unreasonable to divide soul from body, as to separate 
these. Since then the Affections are so intimately 
connected with all language, none will suppose that 
they are banished from the Writings of the Inspired 
Penmen: and, because they are closely united with 
the language of Inspiration, it follows that the Sacred 
Records cannot be adequately expounded, by those 
who are satisfied with the mere shell, and contemn 
the precious kernel of Scripture; who watch the lips, 
but never enter into the feelings of the Inspired Pen- 

5. Since different ideas and views are communica- 
ted by different Affections, so that the same words, 
pronounced under the influence of various emotions, 
v/ill convey various meanings; it becomes requisite to 
investigate and develope the Affections of the Sacred 
Penmen; lest we impose on their language, a sense 
they were not intended to deliver. — Many other ar- 
guments which might be adduced, we intentionally 
omit; because a treatise on this subject will best de- 
monstrate its high importance. 

Having shown the necessity of an acquaintance with 
the Doctrine of the Affections, on the ground of Rea- 
son, let us proceed, for a moment, to enforce its claims 
on the Authority of Divines, . 

Wolffgang Franzius, in his invaluable book, " cle 


Interpretation Scriplurae Sacra?/' discusses the ques- 
tion so fully, and illustrates his positions with exam- 
ples so pertinent, as to render his work deserving the 
serious attention of the inquiring reader, (a) 

Luther also was indebted to his knowledge of the 
Affections, and to his lively mode of representing 
them, for that eminent gift at exposition, with which 
he was endowed. Of this, his Comment on Genesis, 
and his Discourses on the Psalms, are conclusive evi- 

We next proceed to cite some observations, from 
the letter addressed by Spener to the Philo-Biblical 
College at Leipsic. This celebrated man observes — 
*'No practice will prove more pleasant or beneficial, and 
none more suitable to the College, than after fervent, 
secret prayer, to discriminate and enter into the Af- 
fections of the Inspired Writers with sacred attention 
and perseverance, and strive to unfold their nature and 
character. This being done, and the thoughts being 
collected and brought to bear on the subject in hand, 
the students will be able to mark, with the highest de- 
light and profit, the indications of faith and of the 
mind of Jesus, together with the more minute cir- 
cumstances; and easily awaken in their own bosoms, 
Affections of a kindred nature. That eminent divine, 
Luther, when speaking of this practice, says — c Who- 
ever adopts it, will, I am satisfied, learn more him- 
self, than he can srathor from all commentaries united. 


By means of incessant and attentive reading, we 
should, as it were, raise the Writer from the dead, 
and consider him as alive ; so as to form perfect con- 
ceptions mentally, of what we cannot actually be- 
hold. When engaged in the study of the Scriptures, 
the Idea formed in the Writer's mind should be care- 
fully ascertained; the Affections by which he was in- 
fluenced; his state of life; and his office, at the time 
he penned the book. Much do I wish that the labour 
which Casaubon has bestowed on Horace, Juvenal, 
and Persius, in his Prolegomena, were applied to the 
elucidation of the Divine Oracles, so as to give a 
just description of the Genius, Mind, Condition, Man- 
ners, and Affections, peculiar to each of the Sacred 
Writers. These are desirable subjects, that yet re- 
main untouched.' Luther again remarks, l that an 
expositor should, as it were, invest himself with the 
Author's mind, in order that he may interpret him as 
another self.' Bernard, likewise, excelled in this hea- 
venly art, of correcting his own Affections by those of 
the Sacred Penmen; and it was thence he derived his 
spiritual erudition." (6) Thus far Spener's letter; 
and to these names may be added that of Flaccus II- 
lyricus, who also recommends the study of the Affec- 
tions of the Inspired Penmen. 

Let us now consider a few objections which may 
be made to this view of the subject. There are per- 
sons perhaps who think that the Holy Spirit is 


wronged, when we attribute to the Sacred Writers, 
Affections which are, in reality, the fruit of his influ- 
ence: and that the Scriptures are not to be referred 
to those holy men, but rather to the Holy Ghost who 
speaks by them. To this we answer, that the fact 
of their being divinely inspired, far from militating 
against our position, tends itself to convince us that 
the Holy Spirit kindled sacred Affections in the Wri- 
ters' Souls; for it is absurd to suppose, that, in pen- 
ning the Scriptures, they viewed themselves in the 
light of mere machines; or that they wrote without 
any feeling or perception, what we read with so great 
a degree of both. Doubtless, their minds were illu- 
minated by the Spirit, and their wills inflamed with 
pious, holy, and ardent Affections, so that they wrote 
as they felt, and as they were u moved by the Holy 
Ghost." 2 Pet. i. 21, Indeed, it appears that the 
Spirit condescended to accommodate himself to their 
peculiar genius and modes of writing, which evi- 
dently vary in the different books of Scripture. Hence 
we conclude, that the minds of the Sacred Penmen 
were not unmoved; but, on the contrary, active, en- 
lightened, and replete with holy Affections. 

Besides, the Inspired Writers sometimes mention 
the Affections by which they are actuated, as hath 
been already shown; and this must form a complete 
answer to the Objection proposed: for who will have 
-the temerity to affirm, when Paul expressly dec i 


his Love, Joy, Desire, Hope, that he really is not iip 
fluenced by these sacred passions ? 

Again, it may possibly be objected, that, on the 
principles laid down, the Language of Divine Truth 
would become ambiguous; for that any one might give 
it what sense he pleased, by referring it to various 
Affections. In reply to this objection we observe, 
that we agree in considering it a matter of high im- 
portance, to develope the genuine and spiritual mean- 
ing of the written Word; and, then, prove it to be so, 
where there is no gesture or modulation of voice, to 
guide us in judging of the Affections. To infer, how- 
ever, that we must not examine into the Affections of 
the Inspired Penmen, lest this ambiguity should arise, 
were to conceal our ignorance, and dissemble the 
difficulty rather than explain it. Daily experience 
testifies, that even familiar conversation is capable 
of various interpretations, according to the Affections 
that operate: will then our ignorance remove these 
Affections, which nature implanted, and which grace 
does not restrain ? This objection is, in truth, a co- 
gent argument in favour of the study of the Affections; 
for when we have acquired ability to develope them 
(which certainly is attainable,) the Scriptures, will, 
of course, cease to be ambiguous. 

It forms no solid objection to our view of the sub- 
ject, that many Commentators neglect this branch of 
exposition, and pass it over in silence. This c-ar\*\" 


deration is abundantly overruled, by opposing to it the 
high authorities that have advocated the cause of the 
Affections. It might be added, that those persons 
are usually but indifferent examiners of the Scriptures, 
who, in searching into their meaning, depend, partially 
or entirely, on authority. It evidences, as Bernard 
has observed, that they do not read the Word in the 
Spirit, under whose influence it was written. 

Besides, a consequence deduced from the igno- 
rance or negligence of Commentators, can avail no- 
thing against the doctrine. It is, indeed, to be la- 
mented, that very few are solicitous to ascertain the 
spiritual meaning of the Sacred Writings; but are 
anxious rather to be diffuse on critical, controverted, 
and difficult points, where there is a wider field for 
the range of natural intellect. This inattention to the 
Affections is a main reason, why some commentaries 
are so meagre and unsatisfactory to spiritual readers, 
who with a view to personal edification, search after 
the mind of the Spirit, and the revelations of the di- 
vine image. A comment, written without adverting to 
the Affections, is so only in name and form, 



Remarks on the affections as they 
respect an unrenewed person. 

An unrenewed man cannot attain to a just knowledge 
of the Affections, as a help to exposition. This is 
evident from the following considerations. 

An unrenewed person has no perception of any but 
natural Affections. He speaks of spiritual Affections, 
as a blind man does of colours: and even as it respects 
those which are natural, his views are not just, so 
long as he is immured in the darkness and depravity 
of his corrupt nature. It is spiritual Affections, how- 
ever, that are chiefly to be known; for the mind of 
Christ best explains the mind of Christ. This is clear 
from 1 Cor. ii. 

Again, the knowledge of the Affections of which 
we speak, is practical; whereas, an unrenewed man 
peruses the Scriptures theoretically; and believes it 
sufficient, if he understand them through the medium 
of natural reason. It likewise requires an inward 
perception, (cttvBvo-ig^) of which the unrenewed per- 


fcon is destitute, and after which, while in his unrege- 
nerate state, he never seriously aspires. 

It seems indeed an objection to this statement, that 
we daily see ungodly men not only handle the Scrip- 
ture, but also speak largely on its meaning, in books 
and commentaries; and indeed utter truths that can- 
not be controverted by pious men. This difficulty is, 
however, fully explained, when we reflect that what 
is within the compass of a carnal man in profane 
writings, is equally so as it respects the Scriptures. 
He can, for instance, apprehend the terms as they 
are commonly received, form the affirmation and ne- 
gation, understand them when formed, and perceive 
the necessity of a consequence, as well in Holy Writ 
as in profane authors. When an unrenewed person 
reads the precept — " Thou shalt not kill," he per- 
fectly conceives what is meant by killing; he likewise 
understands what is prohibited; and, because the pre- 
cept is universal, he rightly infers that he is forbidden 
to murder. But as it respects the spiritual mean- 
ing, which the letter does not immediately convey, 
and the mind of the Spirit (to (ppovyfJL* tx 7rvevf4,&To$ y ) 
how is it possible for a carnal, unrenewed man, to 
have any perception of that from which he is so en- 
tirely alienated? In 1 Cor. ii. 11, 12, Paul affirms, 
that " the things of God knoweth no man, but the 
Spirit of God; and they who have received, not the 
Spirit of the World, but the Spirit wfcich is of Go<? " 


As an example of this, we cite James iii. where 
the Apostle, by implication, accuses the persons ad- 
dressed, of a breach of the fifth commandment, and 
(ver. 17, 18) describes the mind of the Spirit in full, 
perspicuous, and energetic language; displaying that 
mind, as it were, before their eyes, in impressive 
points of view. It is indubitably certain, that a car- 
nal man can apprehend the terms of the proposition 
here advanced, and apply the precept, by legitimate 
consequence, to himself; but he will not, he cannot, 
have any perception, or form any idea, of the habit 
of a soul that is sanctified, and endued with heavenly 
knowledge and divine perception. On this subject 
we may confidently appeal to the believer's present 
and past experience. Since then an. unrenewed per- 
son has no knowledge of this habit of the mind, how 
is it possible for him to have any perception of the 
emotions of a holy soul ? 

Observation and experience have likewise evidenced 
most decisively, that, in consequence of the incapacity 
already noticed, the mind of a carnal, unregenerate 
person, is far from adequately penetrating even into 
the sense of the letter; because, from the very nature 
of things, there subsists the closest connexion between 
words and ideas. 




It being demonstrated, that only a renewed person 
can consistently engage in examining the Affections, 
let us inquire into their nature. 

The consideration of the Affections is fourfold. If 
we examine them generally, a definition that will com- 
port with all, cannot be given; nor is it indeed neces- 
sary. Let us, however, notice them in the following 
points of view. 

1 . As they belong to men, in common with brutes. 
Under this character, we must class the motions of 
sensitive appetite, arising from the imagination of good 
or evil, whether real, or only apparently so. 

2. As they belong to the carnal man. In this class 
w r e may range the motions (facultatis appetentis) of 
the desiring faculty, sensitive or intellectual ; arising 
from the apprehension of good or evil, whether this 
be of a sensitive or intellectual nature. 

3. As they belong to the spiritual man. In this 
view, an Affection is the emotion of a soul sanctified 
and actuated by the Spirit, 


4. As they are attributed to God himself, in the 
Sacred Writings. This the Grammarians call 
uv$g&j7roira,8£ia (a human Affection,) a word which 
immediately suggests, that Affections cannot be attri- 
buted to the Divine Being, but that the Holy Ghost 
accommodates himself to human infirmity, and conde- 
scends to speak of God in a way adapted to our capa- 
cities. Luther explains the foundation of t&v$pa7ro7rctfcaz* 
in this way: — " Affections are attributed to God, so 
" far as they are found in the Sacred Writers who 
" were inspired by Him; and also in the ministers of 
" the Word. Thus we find, Gen. vi. 6, that re- 
u pentance is ascribed to God, so far as Noah, a holy 
M m^n, under the sacred influences of the Spirit, felt 
u grieved on account of the gross and universal de- 
a pravity of mankind. Affections are likewise attri- 
u buted to God, so far as the wicked feel them in 
il their bosoms. Thus Anger is ascribed to the Di- 
" vine Being because the sinner perceives, by the dis- 
u quietude of his conscience that God is angry with 
« him." 

It will evidently be sufficient for our purpose, if we 
consider the Affections in the second and third modes: 
that is, as they attach to the carnal, and to the spi- 
ritual man. This will suggest all that is necessary 
to be known respecting the other modes noticed. 







As both the carnal and spiritual Affections will come 
under consideration, it should be remarked, that Af- 
fections may be similar as to name, and yet, on ac- 
count of their Source, Object, End, Subjects, Ad- 
juncts, fyc. be essentially different. By means of some 
definite properties or characteristics, they can, how- 
ever, be readily distinguished. 

Characteristics of Spiritual Affections, 

1. A Spiritual Affection has for its Source, the 
Holy Spirit, and is the fruit of His influence. 

2. A spiritual Affection tends to a holy End. 

3. A spiritual Affection is engaged on Objects that 
are divine, eternal, spiritual, and invisible. 

4. A spiritual Affection, when engaged on sensible 
Objects, is not employed on them as such; but only so 
far as they iiave relation to those which are unseen» 


o. A spiritual Affection, is grounded on Faith and 
Love. When these do not operate, Affections cease 
to be spiritual. 

6. A spiritual Affection influences the Subject of 
it, to seek, not himself nor his personal convenience, 
as such ; but God and His Glory. 

7. A spiritual, overcomes a carnal Affection, though 
the latter be otherwise very violent. 

8. A spiritual Affection is always connected with 
Humility. The instant the mind is elated, Affections 
become carnal. 

9. A spiritual Affection excites no perturbation in 
the mind, nor does it leave behind it any bitterness. 
It rather assists in the regulation of the soul, receiving 
every dispensation with complacency, and acquiescing 
in God with joy. 

10, A spiritual Affection tends to the amelioration 
of nature, the increase of grace, and the edification of 
mankind.; having no object but the glory of God. 

Characteristics of Carnal Affections. 

1. A carnal Affection, as it is opposed to those 
which are spiritual, so, it has Nature for its Source, 
and is destitute of Grace. 

2. A Carnal Affection has for its End, the tempo- 
ral preservation and amendment of nature, or, it re- 


fers all things to pleasure; and, particularly, seeks 
such pleasure not in mental peace, but personal con- 
venience; and this, often under a pretext of duty. 

3. A carnal Affection is engaged on Objects that 
are corporeal, local, temporal, and sensitive. 

4. A carnal Affection, if engaged upon spiritual 
Objects, does not dwell on them as such ; neither, with 
righteous views, nor in a consistent manner; but only 
so far as they have Relation to private gratification or 

5. A carnal Affection receives its existence and 
support from perverse self-love. 

6. A carnal Affection gives the preference to tbings 
naturally pleasing, though others may approximate 
more nearly to real excellence. 

7. A carnal Affection gradually disturbs the mind 
when it is at all indulged, rendering it incapable of 
investigating truth, or of performing righteous ac- 
tions; and it leaves a degree of bitterness in the 
mind, proportioned to the strength of the Affection. 
Cicero justly used to term them " perturbationes ani- 
mi" — (the perturbations of the mind.) 

8. A carnal Affection has always a degree of pride 
(tfv$«JW) in it, though it is often very subtile. As 
long as this has place in the mind, carnal Affections 
are not put off. 

9. A carnal Affection often induces a visible change 
of the body. 


The Characteristics we have enumerated, are by 
no means all; but they are the more general ones; 
those which are most consonant with our present ob- 
ject; and which may afford matter whence to derive 
others of a more special kind. If the reader apply 
himself to do this, his labour will not be unprofitable. 

The object of the Characteristics which have been 
adduced, is to develope with more facility, the Affec- 
tions of the Inspired Writers. Other authors, who 
have written on this subject, propose to themselves 
widely different views; as Scipio Claramontius, the 
Italian, who published a work on this subject, in quarto, 
with a preface by Conringius (Helmstadt.) De la 
Chambre also composed four books, " Des Characte- 
rs des Passions;" and Cardinal Bona has another, 
more worthy the notice of Christians, entitled "la- 
nuductio ad Ccelum, &c." (a) 

Although the carnal Affections are, by these Cha- 
racteristics, separated from the spiritual Affections, 
Ave are not thence to conclude, that they are so separa- 
ted in the heart of a renewed person, as that the for- 
mer never mingle with the latter. On the contrary, 
the believer's daily strife is to be more and more de- 
livered from the sinful Affections of carnal nature. It 
is according to the reigning Affection, that a man is 
denominated carnal or spiritual. To suppose, how- 
ever, that renewed and unrenewed men have the same 
perception of the Affections of the Sacred Writer 


is a radical error. It were impious to ascribe any 
mixture of good and bad Affections to the Holy Spi- 
rit; though we cannot deny that sacred Affections 
show themselves in a sanctified nature, by external 
&nd natural indications. 





I. Affections are either simple or compound. The 
simple Affections are, Love, Hatred, Desire, Aver- 
sion, Joy, Sorrow, Hope, Despair, Fear, Confi- 
dence, Anger. The Cartesian philosophy, not un- 
reasonably, classes with them, the Affections of Ad- 
miration, Contempt and other emotions of the mind 
relating chiefly to the intellect. The compound are 
those in which many Affections concur, as Compas- 
sion, Indignation, Envy, Emulation, &.c. — It is not 
enough to have a general knowledge of the Affections, 
since every word may flow from a different emotion. 

2. In the consideration of the sacred Text, a dis- 
tinction is to be made between the Affections of the 
writer, those of the person addressed, the Affections 
of the Subject of discourse, and those which are at- 
tributed to the blessed God. Hence, it is evidently 
necessary not only to ascertain the Affection, bi 
determine the subject. This will have a tendency to 
cause the thing itself to be more accurately, distinctly. 


and duly weighed; and the delightful harmony that sub- 
sists between the Affections of the different subjects, 
will be likewise more fully unfolded. It will also as- 
sist us to discern the principles of holy wisdom, ac- 
cording to which Affections may be regulated by Af- 
fections. This is certainly of high importance ; though, 
as a help, it has hitherto been seldom noticed or 

3. In examining the Affections, those are to be 
considered first, which are expressly named; and, af- 
terwards, those which are not immediately declared. 
Thus, by proceeding from easier to more difficult 
points, we shall gradually enter into the Affections 
even in those passages that afford no direct indications 
of them. 

4. When the Affections are not expressly named, 
the Text should be examined according to the Cha- 
racteristics. Every Characteristic is to be so applied, 
both carnal and spiritual ; the former class to the Af- 
fections of those persons who are the subjects of the 
discourse, and to those of the Writer; and the latter, 
oftentimes to different subjects, but specially to the 
Sacred Penmen. Wherever we recognise a Cha- 
racteristic, we must conclude there is a latent Affec- 
tion; for dissimulation has no place in the Word of 

It is proper here, not only to have the general 
■ ^eristics of the Affections ascertained, but like- 


wise those which are special, and accommodated t6 
individual Affections. The reader will thus easily at- 
tain to a special, as well as general knowledge of holy 

The Characteristics maybe accommodated not only 
to words, but likewise to actions, and entire details. 

The several Characteristics should be separately 
applied to the subjects, whenever an indiscriminate 
application would be an infringement on the Spirit 
speaking in the Scriptures. The reader (especially 
if one of the Epistles be perused,) may be considered 
as standing in a College, where, while he listens to 
the person speaking, and hangs as it were upon his 
lips; the Affections of those who are absent, and those 
who are present, are successively brought before him; 
and he learns from both, what to imitate, and what to 

It would be exceedingly useful, to have the several 
Affections so practically developed, from carefully ex- 
amining our own; that we might, without difficulty, 
express their Characteristics in perspicuous and suit- 
able words. To adopt the language of Franzius, 
Ci when the mind is thus engaged, the Word will be- 
tl come ineffably sweet,- and inconceivably precious. 7 ' 
He who reposes in God with placid and calm Affec- 
tion, may contemplate the turbulent passions of the 
human heart, as well as the gracious emotions excited 
in a sanctified soul by the Holy Spirit; and by tasting 


of Divine wisdom, perceive its nature and appreciate 
its worth. Here, indeed, an inscrutable abyss will 
open to his view; and, as Luther hath remarked, 
" meditation, when strengthened and supported by 
" frequent exercise, will suggest more, much more, 
" than all our commentaries united." May the reader 
be encouraged to aspire after this most useful and 
profitable help! 

It may be added, that exercise will be cherished 
into habit; and that the Characteristics can be so fa- 
miliarized by patient practice and pious experience, 
as to leave the student at liberty to draw them from 
u the good treasure of his heart." 

5. All the Circumstances which the Text supplies, 
or which may be otherwise known, should be weighed 
and examined, if we aim at forming a right judgment 
of the latent Affection. Though only one circum- 
stance remain unknown, a very different Affection 
may be often ascribed to the speaker, of which we 
have frequent examples, even in familiar conversation. 
The Circumstances Who? What? Where? By what 
means? Why? How? When? should be, as much as 
possible, applied. 

The Circumstance which may be more remarkable 
in one place than in another, is to be chiefly urged; 
though, in particular places, the major part contribute 
to give weight to the Affections. 

All Circumstances are not always necessary to be 


accommodated to ail words. Some words have pe- 
culiar reference to particular Circumstances, and, as 
it were, point them out. It is, however, necessary 
sometimes, to examine all the Circumstances accu- 
rately; and, indeed, the more attentive the student is, 
the more will he enter into the spirit of the Text, 
and the mind of the Holy Penmen. 

6. Love is justly considered as the Foundation, 
or rather, Source of every Affection in the Inspired 

The first fruit of the Spirit (Gal. v. 22.) is Love. 
This Affection, however, sometimes receives different 
designations, according to the Circumstances. Love 
to God and man was the pre-eminent Affection ki the 
Soul of St. Paul. Hence, when he addresses peni- 
tent sinners (as in his second Epistle to the Corin- 
thians,) we may plainly discover that his Desire, 
Fear, Hope, Piety, Joy, in short, that all his Affec- 
tions spring from Love. 

7. Pronunciation, or the modulation of the voice 
in uttering any text, is, by no means, to be neglected. 

This ever follows the course of the Affections and 
the dictates of nature; and, hence, a discourse deli- 
vered viva voc£ y is much more easily apprehended than 
one written. So, facts which the eye witnesses, are 
far more convincing than those which are related to us. 

The deficiency under which every student of Scrip- 
tare, in this respect, labours, may be supplied by, first. 


using every, method of eliciting the true meaning of 
the Text; and, then, pronouncing it according to the 
sense and Affection previously and carefully ascer- 

It is presumed, however, that no person will raise 
any interpretation of Scripture, on the foundation of 
this, or any other help alone; but apply all rules of 
Exposition in regular or3er. He who neglects this 
injunction, will often deceive others, and be deceived 

The punctuation and other distinctions which have, 
in the course of time, been introduced into the Text, 
materially affect the pronunciation, and will often lead 
the reader to attribute Affections, which the passage, 
when divested of its human appendages, would by no 
means warrant. On this account, we should lose sight 
of these arbitrary distinctions, until the Affection be 
ascertained. Those ancient copies in which the Text 
is |tet divided into verses, are, in this view, to be 

0. In examining the Affections, we profit chiefly 
by an ardent and holy emulation of those sacred emo- 
tions which we contemplate in the Inspired Writers. 

The more we " put on" their Affections, the more 
deeply shall we enter into their "Writings, and meditate 
on the truths which they reveal. Whenever the Affec- 
tions of the Sacred Penmen develope and unfold them- 
selves, let us seek to possess the same amiable emo- 


lions, and, if possible, the same degree of them, m 
our own bosoms; and let as, by the grace of God, 
strive to correct every irregularity of temper. The 
meaning of Scripture, thus laid up in the heart, rather 
than the head, will transform our souls u from glory 
" into glory;" and we shall experience that "the 
il word of God is quick and powerful, and sharper than 
" any tworedged sword; piercing even to the dividing 
" asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and 
11 marrow; and is a discerner of the thoughts and in- 
dents of the heart." 








Xhe Epistle to the Ephesians consists of two parts] 
of which, the one is comprehended in the first three 
chapters; and the other, in the last three. The for- 
mer may be termed Doctrinal; and the latter. Infer- 
ential and Hortatory. 

The Doctrinal Htsion contains one Principal Doc- 
trine^ Special Doctrines there are, indeed, inter- 
spersed in various places; but either they are adduced 
to explain and enforce the Principal one ; or, they are 
derived from it. 

The Principal Doctrine is as follows: — " Although 
iC a difference exists between Jewish and Gentile 
46 converts, inasmuch as the former enjoyed a priority 
" of time, in point of expecting and acknowledging 
H Christ; and, through the grace of God, were a 
u Church before the Gentiles: yet, now, the latter 


" are become partakers of the same grace with them; 
u and, being admitted to this communion of grace, 
" every real distinction is abolished; Jews and Gen- 
u tiles together, forming the body of the Church, under 
u one head, even Christ." 

It was essentially necessary for the Ephesians, and 
indeed for all Gentile converts, that this doctrine 
should be asserted; because the contentious Jews, 
vain of their national prerogative, would acknowledge 
none to be brethren, who did not submit their necks 
to the yoke of Judaism, observe the law, and trust 
to that for justification. Hence, the apostle considers 
the subject, not only in the present Epistle, but in 
most others; namely, Romans, Chap. i. 16. Philippi • 
ans, Chap. iii. 1 Tim. Chap. i. and in the Epistles 
to the Colossians and Galatians. In his mode of 
handling the doctrine, there is, hnwever, some diffe- 
rence; accommodated to the pecinRr circumstances of 

of il 

and not of the law; because the false apostles main- 
tained the contrary: at other times, he exhorts the 
brethren to guard against such men, adding his rea- 
sons for the admonition: sometimes, he onlj^ recalls 
them from the tenets of these persons, to the true 
faith, &c. In this Epistle, however, he aims at sub- 
verting the very foundation of the opponents' doctrine 
(though in what Chemnitius terms a catechetical man- 

the several churches addressed. Sometimes, i^kthe 
npostle's object to prove that justification is <^Taith 


tier,) which rested on the boasted prerogative that the 
Jews enjoyed over the Gentiles, in point of time. (a) 

The apostle, in order to the more effectual accom- 
plishment of this his object, propounds, in the first 
place, the proper prerogative of the Jewish nation 
(which he had likewise done Rom. iii. ;) lest, by pass- 
ing in silence over those privileges, which might and 
ought to be claimed in his countrymen's behalf, he 
should do an injury to himself, who was a Jew; to his 
own nation; and, which is of infinitely greater moment, 
to the truth itself. Hence, (Chap. i. to verse 13.,) 
after the usual salutations, he directs his attention 
solely to demonstrate the proper privilege of the 
Jews. At first sight, this position may appear doubt- 
ful ; but the whole structure of the epistle will evidence 
its validity, as soon as the mind has comprehended it; 
and, until that be the case, no just opinion on the 
point can possibly be formed. 

The apostle's arguments have an immediate ten- 
dency to this in Chap. i. — for, first, the evident dis- 
tinction there observed in the application of the per- 
sonal pronouns, can have no other meaning. After 
using, as far as verse 12. the pronoun of the first 
person, we, ws, &,c. he continually adopts the pronoun 
of the second, in the following verses. Hence, he 
thus connects the thirteenth verse — u In whom ye 
also;" which plainly indicates a diversity in the sub- 
ject?: and he continues to use this pronoun, until ho 


institutes a new comparison between the subjects 
(Chap. i. ver. 9.,) when, speaking in reference to the 
Jews, he says " to us." Compare Chap. ii. verse 

I. where, with a view to the Gentiles, he uses the 
phrase " to you." If we now collate Chap. ii. ver. 

II, 12, 13, Sic. we shall find the different subjects, 
hitherto represented by these different pronouns; ex- 
pressly named — u the uncircumcision" (Gentiles;) 
and a the circumcision" (Jews.) 

It is another circumstance which evidences the 
truth of this position, that, secondly, the predicate 
restricts the former part of the chapter to the Jews: 
thus they are called (ver. 12.) " those who first trust- 
ed in Christ." The objection which lies against 
u predestinate" (npoopi&ui) on the ground of its being 
a general word, and indicative of a priority of time, 
and not of a priority of subjects, cannot militate 
against u to trust first" (vrpisXTngeiVj) because this 
latter word must include both ; since the trusting here 
mentioned is inevitably to be referred to man, and not 
to God; as indeed the text itself refers it 

Again, it is said, in the ninth and following verses? 
that the mystery of the divine will was revealed to 
them, in order that it might be dispensed (en; otxovo- 
ftiav) in the fulness of time; and that all things (Gen- 
tiles as well as Jews) might be reduced under one 
head, even Christ. There had been therefore those, 
to whom a revelation was made previously to the ge- 


Eeral dispensation, &c; but, in the thirteenth and 
subsequent verses, the apostle asserts, that the same 
benefits which God had before conferred on the Jews, 
were now become common to the Gentiles; priority 
of time being excepted. His words are — " In whom 
" ye (Gentiles) also trusted, after that ye heard the 
u word of truth, the gospel of your salvation; in whom 
u also, after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that 
" Holy Spirit of promise, which is the earnest of 
" our (the Jews') inheritance; 5 ' that spiritual inherit- 
ance mentioned in the preceding verses : " Wherefore 
" I also, after I heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus, 
*f and love unto all the saints, &,c." 

It is the same subject (the Gentiles) which our 
apostle pursues to verse 3. of chapter ii. ; and this we 
shall easily discern, if we neglect the divisions into 
chapters, and consider the whole structure of the text^ 
harmonizing together in all its parts. — u That you 
a may know what is the exceeding greatness of his 
"power to us-ward, who believe according to the 
" working of his mighty power, which he wrought in 
" Christ, when he raised him from the dead (and set 
" him at his own right hand in the heavenly places, far 
c * above all principality, and power, and might, and 
" dominion, and every name that is named, not only in 
" this world, but in that which is to come: and hath 
iC put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the 
" head over all things to the church, which is his body, 



<c the fulness of him that filleth all in all.) And you 
u who were dead in trespasses and sins, wherein, in 
" times past, ye walked, &c." 

No sooner, however, does the apostle descend to 
the original state of the Gentiles, than he institutes a 
comparison between it, and the primeval state of the 
Jews: lest the latter people should take occasion to as- 
sert some new prerogative. He now therefore proves by 
the testimony of the consciences of each, that Jews, 
as well as Gentiles, were, before Christ, under sin 
(an argument which he had discussed under a different 
form, Rom. Chap, iii.) and that both were saved and 
brought to newness of life, by grace alone. Hence, 
in the second and following verses, he declares the 
whole matter in direct terms. 

These verses, united with those subsequent, as far 
as Chap. iii. comprehend the Principal Conclusion of 
the whole epistle, which fully developes its Scope. 
The Conclusion is — a Though the Gentiles were not 
i: originally possessed of the covenants of promise, or 
4i any foundation of hope, jet y in Christ, they, toge- 
u ther with the Jews, were made partakers of every 
u benefit; he having removed all things which opposed 
" their uniting with the Jews into one body, and hav- 
a ing, on the other hand, joined things the most op- 
" posite (Jews and Gentiles,) by abolishing the law. 
" Hence, the Gentiles were not now, (as the Jewish 
"false apostles asserted,") strangers and aliens:, but 


u being reconciled to Gcd by the blood of Christy 
a they were become fellow-citizens* wi&f the saints,- 
u and of the household of God." ** 9 

These things are so obvious, that no doubts caa 
remain with respect to the observations we made on 
the diversity of the subjects. The Conclusion ex- 
pressed above, is afterwards delivered by the apostle 
in a fine similitude; a similitude sometimes adopted by 
Christ himself, as well as the apostles and prophets. 
He compares the Church to a building, and considers 
Christ as the corner-stone; with which the Jews first, 
but the Gentiles no less afterwards, were built up to- 
gether as an habitation. Finally, as is the custom 
with our apostle, he includes in this similitude, or al- 
legory, the subject-matter of the prayers which he 
offered up to God for the Gentiles (Chap. iii. ver. 1. 
and 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, of which ver. 17, 18. are 
best explained by the similitude,) and then closes the 
whole with a doxology. 

Our connecting ver. 1. of chap. iii. with ver. 14. is 
a circumstance by no means singular, and was not done 
without grounds; being, as we shall show, conforma- 
ble to the intention of the apostle. If we examine 
the first verse, we see that he names the Subject: — 
u For this cause, I, Paul, the prisoner of Jesus 
i: Christ for ycu Gentiles." He then forms the Pre- 
dicate, and repeats the same words: — " For this cause 
u (I say,) I hr>w my kne°* " On this atcoQgt* we 


insulate all the words that intervene between ver. 2. 
and ver. 14; or, if such a mode be preferred, we may 
consider them as a description of the Subject. 

The extent of the parenthesis in question, is no 
just argument against the truth of our position. A 
diffuse style is the genius of Paul's writing, and arose 
from his abundant and ardent love. Often, when we 
might be led to think he had forgotten himself, he 
suddenly returns to his subject, and pursues the thread 
of his discourse. The Fathers were acquainted with 
this peculiarity in his style ; and it is requisite that we 
should observe it, because it frequently happens, that 
we cannot else enter into the meaning of the apostle. 

Instances of equally copious parentheses occur in 
various parts of the writings of St. Paul. The first 
epistle to Timothy furnishes us with one from verse 
8. of chap. i. to verse 17. inclusive. There, taking 
Occasion from the false teachers, Paul speaks ol the 
true and proper use of the Law, according to the Gos- 
pel committed to him; and having given vent to the 
feelings of his heart, he returns ver 18. to the scope 
he had in view in the third verse_, where he intimates, 
by using the comparative particle as {%<l$uc) that the 
completion of the sense was to be expected in the sub- 
sequent verses. The whole of the discourse connects 
thus: — " As I besought thee to charge some that they 
" teach no other doctrine, but seek after godly edify- 
a ing; aj)d that the end of the commandment was love, 


" out of a pure neart, and of a good conscience, and 
« of faith unfeigned, &c. — so now, I commit the same 
" charge unto thee — that thou mayest hold faith and 
" a good conscience, &c.*' 

Another instance of it, we see in Phil. i. 27. to 
Chap ii. 16. inclusive. The apostle in a peculiar pa* 
renthesis discusses a subject, the proposition of which 
is contained Chap. i. 27. and afterwards (Chap. ii. 17.) 
he returns to what he was discoursing of in the pre- 
ceding chapter. In conformity with this statement, 
we find (Chap. i. 23.) that Paul says he is influenced 
by two things, a desire both of life and death; but he 
knows not which of these to choose. Death is most 
desirable to himself, but the welfare of the Philip- 
pians requires rather that he may be spared a little 
longer: and, having this confidence, he is assured 
that his life will be lengthened, and that he shall see 
them again in person. Then, after the interruption 
which his discourse had received, he proceeds (Chap, 
ii. 17.) as follows: — <l Yea, and if I be offered upon 
cc the sacrifice and service of your faith, I joy and re- 
"joice with you all." The intervening charge is 
happily and judiciously introduced by the apostle, in 
order that the Philippians might not remit their exer- 
tions until his arrival, but contend for the faith of the 
Gospel with unity and humility. This cannot but be 
evident to those who examine the point with attention 
^.nd candour. 


It is, however, proper to observe, that the words 
which are thus insulated are never superfluous; but 
arise either from some pressing necessity, or from the 
apostle's ardent love. In this epistle to the Ephe- 
sians, for instance, how forcibly does the description 
of the subject insulated by the parenthesis, elucidate 
the point which Paul had to prove. For, if God had 
committed to the Apostle a dispensation of grace for 
the Gentiles, and the revealed mystery of Christ, that 
the Gentiles were co-heirs, members of the same body, 
and partakers together with the Jews, of the promise 
in Christ; Paul undertook the ministry through the 
gospel, and conformably with the gift of that grace 
(which is all contained in Chap. iii. ;) and thence it 
certainly follows, tbat the Gentiles were not to be ex- 
cluded from communion with the Jews in Christ. 

The other part of the Epistle is hortatory, and 
flows from the doctrinal part, as a stream from its 
fountain. It is, indeed, St. Paul's usual custom in 
his epistles, to connect practicals and theoreticals; in 
order that they may mutually illustrate and confirm 
each other. With him, however, the injunctions of 
Practice follow the positions of Theory, that the 
reader, when he has inspected the fountain, may ad- 
mit the streams into his bosom in all their sweetness 
and rich abundance. The best example of this, is 
contained in the epistle to the Colossians, one part of 
which refers to faith, and the other to practice : and 


indeed these two epistles, the Colossians aad Ephe- 
sians, are well fitted to explain one another. 

The main exhortation that arises from the princi- 
pal Doctrine, is — concord and peace between Jew 
and Gentile. This may not improperly be termed the 
General Scope of the whole epistle, which is fully 
enforced from Chap. iv. ver. 1. to ver. 16. inclusive. 
St Paul's next object is to lay before Jew and C 
tile, the difference between their present and (NS. 
state, estimated from comparing their presen 
their former manners. In order to this (1.) he p 
out the difference, from ver. 17. to ver. 24; (2.* to 
lays down some particular precepts, which are, hos^ 
ever, universally binding — particular, in reference to 
the precept given — universal, in reference to those on 
whom it was enjoined, ver. 25. to chap. v. ver. 21. 
inclusive; (3.) he delivers to all, according to their 
different stations in life, divers and particular com- 
mandments—to wives, ver. 22. to the end — to chil- 
dren, chap. vi. ver. 1 — 3. — to parents, ver. 4.— to 
servants, ver. 5 — 8. — to masters, ver. 9. Here Paul 
adopts the same method, always placing inferiors be- 
fore superiors; and the weaker before the stronger. 
He likewise puts generals before specials throughout 
the whole epistle, which is the best mode of arrange- 
ment (see Col. iii. ver. 18. &c. and 1 Pet. chap. iii. 
ver. 1 — 7, &,c.,) and draws all his arguments relative 
to any particular scope, from the principal Doctrine 


propounded in the foregoing part, as plainly appears 
from chap. v. ver. 23. &c. (4.) He furnishes means 
for the attainment of the things enjoined, and for de- 
fending them " against the wiles of the devil," to 
chap. vi. 20. inclusive. 

These things being explained, and Tychicus, the 
bearer of the epistle, being directed to give the Ephe- 

<&Bh£ fuller information concerning St. Paul, (ver. 21, 

the Ge e concludes with saluting them, and invoking 

the Geivine blessing, 

and pr 

in CI 







x he Occasion of the apostle's penning the epistle to 
the Colossians, may be safely collected from the lnV 
toxical circumstances, which are partly expressed and 
partly implied, (a) 

For, first, the apostle expressly mentions (ver. 
3 — 8.) the conversion of the Colossians, effected un- 
der the ministry of Epaphras; and the accounts which 
had been given him by that servant of God, concern- 
ing the present state of their church. 

Secondly, Paul declares in express terms (chap, 
ii. ver. 1.) that he endured a great conflict for those 
churches which he had not seen in the flesh, and ; 
amongst the rest, for this church. No means there- 
fore could have been adopted, better calculated to 
strengthen the Colossians, than letters from himself 
who was now absent and a prisoner. 

Thirdly^ He intimates (chap, ii, ver. 7 ; 8.) that 


the church was, at that time, troubled with ci enticing 
" words, philosophy, and vain deceit, after the rudi- 
u ments of the world." He also shows, by borrow- 
ing arguments from evangelical doctrines, in order to 
combat legal teachers, and by the inferences which 
be draws from those arguments, that certain Judai- 
zino- Christians burthened the consciences of the Co- 


lossian converts, by enjoining on them the observance 
of the ceremonial law: the necessity of circumcision 
(ver. 11;) of keeping particular days (ver. 16.;) and 
of abstaining from divers kinds of meats (ver. 16, and 
21.;) from which, as an intolerable yoke, the Fathers 
had deemed it necessary to deliver the Gentile church. 
Collate Acts xxv. wjth Gal. v. 3, 4, &c. 

Fourthly, If we rightly consider what is said 
concerning Epaphras, at the commencement and 
conclusion of the epistle, we shall probably infer, that, 
while he was earnestly commending to Paul the faith 
and love of the new converts, and while glowing with 
holy zeal for their welfare; he moved the apostle by 
his entreaties, to dispatch this letter to Colosse and 
Laodicea: (chap. i. ver. 8. and chap. iv. ver. 12. and 
13.) The joy consequent on sending the epistle, was 
doubtless shared by Tychicus (Acts xx. ver. 4. ;) by 
Onesimus, himself a Colossian; (b) by Aristarchus 
(Acts, chap. xix. ver. 29. and chap. xx. ver. 4. ;) by 
Mark (Acts, chap. xii. ver. 12. and chap. xv. ver. 37. 
38.;) by Jesus surnamed Justus, by Epaphras, D?- 


mas, and Luke (Acts xxvii. ver. l.j) names dear to 
the Colossians, and with which they were well ac- 
quainted (Col. iv. ver. 7.) &c. 

Here we may remark, that the Acts of the Apos- 
tles, and especially the fifteenth chapter of them, are 
frequently adduced to explain the Occasion of writing 
this epistle. The historical books, and in particular 
that just mentioned, throw light on all the other books 
of the New Testament; the historical books of the 
Old Testament perform the same service for the Pro- 
phets; and the books of Moses elucidate the writings 
of both Testaments. But Chap. xv. of the Acts, is 
of special assistance in attaining to a right understand- 
ing of the epistles of St. Paul. 

The Apostle's Scope. These points being premi- 
sed, we may easily ascertain the Scope of the whole 
epistle. This was, that Paul, in obedience to his 
duty as an apostle, might confirm the Colossian con- 
verts in the doctrines of faith, and in seeking after 
that holiness which flows from them. Collate chap, 
ii. ver. 1 — 7, with chap i. ver. 9 — 12. It was also, 
that he might seasonably heal the breaches made by 
Jewish errors, which had spread, and were perhaps 
still prevailing; and that he might deliver the church 
from the evils which these errors had induced; as 
well as avert from it, those which he foresaw would 
be consequent on this " vain deceit." 

It very evidently appears from the whole structure 


of the epistle, that the sole reason the apostle had for 
so carefully confirming the Colossians in the purer 
doctrines of faith, was a fear lest they should be in- 
jured by the pernicious opinions of heretical men. 
Hence, this, like many of St. Paul's epistles, may 
and ought to be termed polemical; and the apostle 
himself makes all the doctrines stated have a reference 
to it, when he says — " This I say (txtc h Aeyo>) lest 
u any man should beguile you with enticing words;'' 
chap. ii. ver. 4. The declaration contained in these 
words should be well considered, as we recognize in 
it the true and genuine Scope of the whole epistle, 
expressed in Paul's own words; and thence we may 
likewise safely conclude it to be of the polemical kind. 
That this mode of announcing the Scope of a whole 
book is usual in Scripture, we may learn from 1 Tim. 
chap. iii. ver. 14. John chap. xx. ver. 31. 1 John 
chap. ii. ver. 26. 2 Peter chap. iii. ver. 1. &c. 

The Method. The method of managing a contro- 
versy which our apostle adopts, is not to enter the 
lists with his antagonists, and thus gratify their de- 
sires to contend (a practice from which he testifies 
that his mind was most abhorrent, 1 Cor. chap. xi. 
ver. 16.;) but his plan was, to address an epistle to 
those churches that were infested with false teachers, 
and by confirming them in the principles of genuine 
doctrine, to foil the attempts of the adversaries of tha 

A^vlASISoJ/ [AN8L 165 

The controversy which he holds in the epistle be- 
fore us, was the principal one of that age, and engaged 
the special attention of the apostle of the Gentiles, 
His discussion of it has proved a considerable blessing 
to posterity, because the mode of obtaining salvation 
depended so much on the present controversy, as to 
involve in its own, the decision of almost every other 
question. Hence, if we weigh the apostle's Scope, 
and examine his method of treating it, we must ne- 
cessarily set a high value on this epistle, and consider 
it as fundamental; as one that embraces the Order, 
Structure, and Harmony of the Christian system with 
so peculiar a propriety, that not only the young con- 
vert cannot desire a more excellent confirmation of the 
doctrines he has espoused; but even the more esta- 
blished, those who have groaned under many and va- 
rious temptations, may revert to these first principles 
with avidity and delight, and find the repose which 
they had vainly sought elsewhere. 

Historical Recapitulation of the Scope. The 
Scope of the apostle may be briefly stated thus. 
Epaphras had brought to Paul, the glad, tidings of 
the conversion of the Colossians, and faithfully set 
forth the dangers with which they were threatened; 
and as the apostle felt especially concerned for the 
welfare of those churches to whom he had not himself 
preached the gospel, and consequently for that at Co- 
losse; as he was anxious they should preserve theiF 


purity of faith, and that integrity of life which is the 
fruit of it; he wrote this epistle to them, by virtue of his 
Office, under the influences of the Spirit, and perhaps 
actuated by the intreaties of faithful Epaphras. In 
it, he fully explains the proper foundations of the 
Christian doctrine, in order that the Colossians might 
be assured, that the way into which they were guided 
by the ministry of Epaphras, was the saving and right 
way. He also wisely and providently endeavours 
to avert from them all heterodox opinions, and all dan- 
ger of corruption either in doctrine or practice. 

TJie Division. With respect to the Division of 
the epistle, it is so plain and natural as easily to be 
distinguished by the attentive reader. After the In- 
scription (chap. i. ver. 1,2.) the epistle may be said 
to comprehend an Exordium, chap. i. ver. 3 — 8; a 
Proposition, ver. 9 — 12; a Confirmation, chap. i. ver. 
13, to chap. iv. ver. 7; and a Conclusion. 

The Exordium. The Exordium evidently unfolds 
the Occasion of writing, and therefore does not re- 
quire a regular analysis. But it is worthy of particu- 
lar remark, that the apostle has placed that first, 
which, following the natural order, we should have 
placed last. The Exordium would then have run 
thus:' — "Epaphras has declared to me your love 
" in the Spirit, and that God by his ministry, has 
Cl made you partakers of the Gospel and its blessed 
"fruits. Understanding therefore, your faith and 


u love, which you have derived from the promise of 
*" everlasting life, we have thankfully adored the rich- 
<c es of divine grace, and recommended you to God in 
ft ceaseless prayers. "—The apostle, however, leaves 
the natural and obvious order; and, after mentioning 
his thanksgivings and his prayers, proceeds to speak 
of that which lay nearest his heart: to glorify the 
Lord for the mercy he had shown the Colossians, and 
invoke his continued blessing on their church. If 
this remark be applied elsewhere, the Analysis will in 
many instances become easier, and Paul's inward af- 
fections be better conceived. 

The Proposition, The Proposition (ver. 9 — 12.,) 
flowing from the apostle's abundant love, assumes the 
form of a prayer; and is couched in exquisite and en- 
ergetic language, indicative of that tender concern for 
the Corinthians, by which he was actuated. Had he 
been uninfluenced by this Affection, he would pro- 
bably have expressed himself thus: — u I write in or- 
u der that you, who are now so much endangered by 
c: the errors of heresy, may, through God's grace, ob- 
" tain an increasing acquaintance with saving doctrine 
f l and spiritual wisdom; and that you may abound in 
" desires after holiness, although now entangled in so 
" many fleshly and worldly deceits." But the apos- 
tle, agreeably to the feelings we have recognized in 
him, sweetly explains, declares, and, as it were, insi- 
nuates into the hearts of the Colossians, this the scope 


of his mind. Hence it happens, that he introduces 
the subject which forms the principal Proposition, not 
so much as the scope of his present epistle, as the 
constant theme of his prayers. He likewise promises 
them, a most abundant measure and increase of divine 
grace — by praying for it with the most affecting ear- 
nestness (ver. 11.;) and himself, the joy of acknow- 
ledging the infinite mercy of God in respect to them 
(ver. 12.) The remark made concerning the Exor- 
dium, may be very properly repeated here : namely, 
that the apostle opens with that which most engaged 
. his affections; and thus the Proposition varies a little 
from the natural and accustomed order. 

The Confirmation. This may be divided into two 
parts; first, a Confirmation in the genuine foundation 
of faith, opposed to the prevailing errors of the here- 
tics; secondly, an Exhortation to seek, with earnest 
care, after holiness of life. The first part is Doctri- 
nal (chap. i. ver. 13. to chap. ii. ver. 3.:) and Elen- 
chtical (chap. ii. ver. 4. to chap iii. ver. 4.) 

In the Doctrinal part, he lays down (1.) the Pro- 
position, which is couched in clear and weighty lan- 
guage (chap. i. ver. 3.;) (2 ) the Exposition of the 
Proposition — from the dignity of the Person (ver. 
15— 19.— and Office of Christ (ver. 2Q.;) aad (3.) 
the Doctrinal Application of the Proposition. He 
shows that the Colossians had happily become par- 
takers of this saving doctrine (ver. 21, 22.;) whirh 


doctrine then forms the ground of an Application re- 
plete with instruction and sweetness, and very conform- 
able to the Scope (ver. 23.) The words are likewise 
well adapted to it, and in themselves most emphatic. 

The perversions of the legal teachers who opposed 
the Gospel, were in no small degree dangerous; so 
that Paul might justly fear, lest, yielding to the de- 
ceitful arguments of those sophists, they should de- 
sert the simple truth which they had before espoused. 
Hence, as we observed, the words " from the hope o! 
Ci the Gospel which you have heard," are efcphatic; 
and hence the argument " which was preached to eve- 
u ry creature under heaven," wherewith he confirms 
his instructions, is so likewise : for the apostle espe- 
cially wished to inculcate on their minds, that the gos- 
pel which they had heard from Epaphras, was the 
same gospel that was preached " to every creature 
" under heaven." 

The second Doctrinal Application is therefore very 
aptly connected (ver. 23.) — " whereof I, Paul, am 
a made a minister," &c. For he shows, that the very 
Truth which he propounded, was the express and ge- 
nuine Object of his Apostleship, for the sake of which 
he had become a partaker of the sufferings of Christ. 
Since too, it was especially necessary to the Colossian 
church, that this Object should be fully understood 
and explored, he commences with passing on it a me~ 
rited euloginm (ver. 25 — 27. :) speaking of it as a 


mystery of Christ's manifestation to the Gentiles,which 
he had been sent into the world to announce; and 
thence he makes a very apt transition to the third 
Doctrinal Application. Here, he points out the way 
in which he was to discharge the office committed to 
him, as well towards men in general (ver. 28, 29.;) 
as towards the Colossians and Laodiceans in particu- 
lar, and all those who had not seen his face in the flesh: 
(chap. ii. ver. 1, 2, 3.) 

If this threefold Doctrinal Application be well con- 
sidered, we shall conclude that nothing could have 
been said, more apposite to the state of the Colossian 
church. What indeed would so effectually confirm 
them in the doctrine they had embraced under Epaph- 
ras, as St. Paul's assurance that it was genuine; that 
it was the very Truth which he deemed it the object 
of his mission to publish to the world; and that they had 
become the subjects of his rejoicing and the objects of 
his care, because they espoused it. It was likewise very 
essential, that he should deeply impress their minds 
with a conviction of his apostolic authority, and en- 
force that conviction by pointing out the fruits of the 
gospel, and the sufferings he underwent on account of 
it; in order that he, might not only confound the pre- 
suming arrogance of the false teachers, but give addi- 
tional energy to the arguments with which he was 
about to oppose their opinions. 

The attentive reader will now without difficulty 


perceive, that the apostle's language is strongly em- 
phatic and excellently adapted to his Scope. For in- 
stance (chap. ii. ver 2.,) he says, " unto all riches 
" of the full assurance of understanding:" because 
there was reason to fear, lest the new converts should 
be hindered and shaken, by the numerous doubts 
which their adversaries raised. u In whom," says 
the apostle (ver. 3.,) u are hid all the treasures of 
"wisdom and knowledge;"* because those adversa- 
ries, " vainly puffed up by their fleshly mind" (ver. 
18.,) promised the Colossians greater degrees of 

In the Elenchtical part (^05 £tey%ov) of Confir- 
mation, which is included chap. ii. ver. 4. to chap. iii. 
ver. 4, the apostle adopts the following order. 1 . 
He connects this part with the preceding: — " This I 
say," and adds a general proposition — " lest any man 
" should beguile you with enticing words" (ver. 4.) 
2. He prevents an Objection; remarking that, al- 
though he was absent, he felt concerned for their 
welfare (ver. 5.) and here we may observe with de- 
light Paul's paternal affection for the Colossians, as 
well as his ardent zeal for the enlargement of the 
church and the establishment of order. 3. This is 
followed by the general conclusion of the whole con- 
troversy, which is also practical, and placed first, 
where it is more easy to be understood than if placed 
last; because the Scope and ultimate end of the wri~ 


fer are thus obvious to the reader, at once; and be- 
cause the arguments which follow, impress themselves" 
on the mind with more energy. 4. He lays down 
the Opposite Proposition which he nevertheless ex- 
presses generally, because the Colossians would rea- 
dily know to what he alluded (ver. 8.) It is, however, 
evident, from collating the eighth with the preceding 
and subsequent verses, that the Opposite Proposition 
and true state of the controversy may be formed as 
follows. The apostle's Proposition was: — " God hath 
" delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath 
66 translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son; in 
u whom we have redemption, through his blood, even 
tc the forgiveness of sins" (chap. i. ver. 13, 14.) 
The Judaizing teachers contradicted this: saying, that 
" it was necessary for Christians to be circumcised, 
" and to keep the law of Moses," Acts xv. ver. 5. 
The Opposition becomes therefore evident. Propo- 
sition. " We are kept simply through faith in Christ 
u Jesus, by which (faith,) we have received the for- 
" giveness of all our sins, and eternal life." Oppo- 
site Proposition. " We are not kept simply through 
€t faith in Christ Jesus, but if we desire to be saved, 
u we must be circumcised, and keep the law of Mo- 
" ses, and the traditions of men, in meat and drink, in 
" respect of a holyday, the new moon, the sabbath, 
" and worshipping of angels." Hence the language of 
the Judaizing teachers was, a Touch not; taste not; 
c< handle not;" ver. 2L 


Now in this Opposite Proposition, the doctrines of 
Redemption and Christ's Satisfaction, of Justification 
and Sanctification, were greatly corrupted; and there- 
by, consciences which had been recovered into liberty 
by Jesus, were again subjected to human powers, 
and to a heavy yoke of traditions. Hence the Op- 
posite Proposition is followed by arguments refuting 
it. — 1 . In Christ dwelleth all the fulness of the God- 
head bodily (ver. 9.) 2. Ye are complete in Christ. 
3. Christ is the head of all principalities and powers 
(that tyrannize over the conscience.) 4. In Christ 
ye are now circumcised, and therefore dead, in put- 
ting off the body of sin (ver. 11.) 5. Buried with 
him in baptism (ver. 12.) 6. Risen also with him 
through faith (ver. 12.) 7. Raised with him from 
the dead, through the forgiveness of sins (ver. 13.) 
8. Whence the hand-writing is blotted out, taken 
away, and nailed to his cross (ver. 14.) 9. And in 
the cross of Christ (Christ being spoiled and crucifi- 
ed;) were those principalities and powers which had 
hitherto imposed a heavy yoke on the conscience, 
spoiled, made an open show of, and led in triumph 
(ver. 15.) From these arguments the proper Con- 
clusion naturally flows (ver. 16,) which likewise aptly 
touches on the substance of all the arguments (ver. 

The Application follows, which consists of a De- 
portation, a Reproof, and an Exhortation, Th* §r* 


guments of the Dehortation are as follows. 1, The 
adversaries beguile you of your reward. 2. They 
boast of things which they have not seen. 3. They 
are presumptuously and carnally puffed up (ver. 18.) 
4. They do not hdld the Head, on which alone de- 
pends the increase of the body and members. The 
Reproof is given, because they had already inclined 
to the erroneous opinions of the adversaries (ver. 20, 
2 1 ,) which he administers in an argument drawn from 
antecedents (ver. 20,) adding a new argument (ver, 
22.:) and guarding it (ver. 23.) The Exhortation 
(chap. iii. ver. 1, 2,) he confirms by argument (ver. 
3 and 4;) and then makes a delightful and happy tran- 
sition to the second part of Confirmation, namely, the 
Exhortation. Vide page 214. 

The Exhortation. This is perceptive, and con- 
tains an Exhortation to seek after holiness with all 
diligence. It includes the following things. 1. A 
general persuasive to mortify the flesh (chap. iii. ver, 
5.) 2. A twofold argument drawn from the justice 
of God (ver. 6,) and from the difference between 
their present and pristine state (ver. 7, 8.) 3. A 
fuller explanation of the method by which sanctifiea- 
tion is to be attained — by putting off the old man 
(ver. 9;) and by putting on the new man (ver. 10.) 
This he holds forth, in the same verse / in opposition 
to the Judaizing teachers, from the final cause (" re« 
" newed in knowledge";) the formal cause (" after 


** the image";) the inefficient cause (" of him that 
a created him";) and from the universality of the 
Subject (ver. 11.) He then proceeds to descant on 
the cultivation of Christian graces (ver. 12, 13, 14;) 
of heavenly and inward peace (ver. 15;) of the divine 
word, with spiritual joy and gladness (ver. 16;) and 
with thanksgiving in word and deed (ver. 17.) 4. He 
descends to the particular duties of wives (ver. 18, 
19;) of children (ver. 20;) of parents (ver. 21;) of 
servants (ver. 22 — 25;) and of masters (chap. iv. 
ver. 1.) 5. He finally commends to the attention of 
all, two very important precepts: namely, incessant 
Prayer not only for the private success, but for the 
general spread of the Gospel (ver. 2 — 4;) and Wis- 
dom in conversation, especially to them that are with- 
out (ver. 5 and 6.) 

However long this Exhortation seem, it evidently 
flows from the preceding subject. Precept answers 
to doctrine, as a stream to its fountain; and, .thus, the 
Apostle admirably points out the proper source of 
sanctification, and the method of teaching the gospel, 
which is most agreeable to the mind of the Holy 
Ghost Let these things be duly observed, and it 
will become of little or no consequence, whether any 
divisions be made in the Confirmation; since any one 
may refer all to Refutation and term the rest the Ap- 
plication ; whether they be distributed into three parts 
—doctrinal, elenchtical, and preceptive; or whethoi 


divided into two, as we ourselves have done, deeming 
it more conformable to the Proposition, and the just 
mode of treating it. 

In the Conclusion, he speaks of the mutual com- 
munications of their several states (ver. 7 — 9 ;) the 
salutations of others (ver. 10 — 14;) the salutations of 
the brethren (ver. 15;) gives special directions (ver. 
16, 17;) and a remembrance of himself, together with 
a prayer for their welfare (ver. 18.) 

The Argument of the epistle may be paraphrased 
in the following manner. — " I have thanked, and I 
a continue to thank my God, for your conversion, ef- 
H fected under the ministry of Epaphras; an account 
a of which he has communicated to me. It is my in- 
" cessant prayer that you, being strengthened of God, 
u may increase in knowledge and holiness; and re- 
<6 membering the mighty mercy, how that He fully 
u redeemed you through Christ the Lord, the Sa- 
cc viour of you and of all; who, if you abide in the 
" faith, is also your eternal joy in the Gospel (which 
" is preached in the world,) and committed to me, 
u together with fellowship in the sufferings of Christ,) 
i: even as he is become to the Gentiles, the hope of 
u glory. Wherefore I labour, that all may be fully 
" formed in Christ; but especially that you, the Laodi- 
(i ceans,and all the churches that do not personally know 
u me, may persevere in integrity of faith and practice. 
ci Though absent, I write as if I were really present. 


Ci lest, influenced by vain persuasions, you should leave 
a Christ whom you have received, and side with Ju- 
a daizing Christians; when Jesus, in his passion, 
€t death, and resurrection is made to you All in All, 
H and bears the same relation to the law, as a sub- 
u stance to its shadow. Let it then be your care, 
u that you be not beguiled of your reward by them 
11 who know not what they affirm; and who leave 
u Christ, the Head, whence is derived every increase^ 
" being vainly puffed up in their minds. Why do you, 
" who are dead to the world, listen to worldly doc- 
u trines concerning things obnoxious to corruption 
ci and unworthy of the wisdom that dwells in the Sa- 
a viour? Influenced by the consideration that ye 
■ iC were quickened together with Christ, and are about 
" to enjoy with him immortal glory, elevate your souls 
11 to things above ; and, being invested with this high 
" dignity, persist in mortifying the old man; put on 
a the new man, with righteousness, peace, and joy in 
li the Holy Ghost; honour Christ; do all in his name 
u with thanksgiving; continuing, every one according 
" to his calling, in prayer, especially for me; and act- 
" ing with wisdom your respective parts in the world. 
" Tychicus and Onesimus will give you further in* 
il formation respecting my state, &c.' ; 



" It is a great happiness to have pointed out to us, the best 
u books -written on any science, or any special part of it, 
€i For want of this advantage, many a man has -wasted 
u his time in reading over perhaps some whole volumes, 
m and learned, little more by it, than to know that those 
u volumes were not worth his reading. 97 

Dr. Watts. 

" The Notes by the Translator contain a valuable fund oi 
u bibliographical knowledge, collected and digested from va- 
a rious approved sources, on all the topics discussed by Pro» 
* c fessor France; ; from which the student of the Sacred 
f< Writings may derive important direction and assistance." 
Christian Observer, December, 1814. 






Grammatical Reading. 

(a) 1. Vf ith respect to a Version of the Holy Scriptures, 
none has such claims on the student's attention as the autho- 
rized English Translation. M Those who have compared most 
of the European Translations with the Original, have not 
scrupled to say, that the English Translation of the Bible, 
made under the direction of King James the First, is the most 
accurate and faithful of the whole. Nor," adds Dr. Adam 
Clarke, M is this its only praise ; the Translators have seized 
the very spirit and soul of the Original, and expressed this, 
almost every where, with pathos and energy." 

The best Latin Version of the New Testament, according 
to Dr. Doddridge, is Beza. " Erasmus is not equally accurate 
with him ; and Castalio," add3 the Doctor, •' is often false, and 


in several places, full of affectation." Pagninus improved by 
Montanus is a very liberal version ; and is printed in Leus- 
den's Greek Testament, 12mo. Berol. 1761 ; and in Monta- 
nus' edition of the Greek Test, printed with his Bible men- 
tioned note.(^) 

2. A good edition of the Greek Testament, is, of coarse, a 
main desideratum with the Biblical student. Griesbach's Tes- 
tament printed at Hall6, or Wetstein's 2 vol. fol. Amst. 
1751-2, are the best we have ; and, when the student is com- 
petent to critical inquiry, he should certainly procure a copy 
of one of them. Bengelii Novum Testamentum Grxcum, is 
much esteemed, 8vo. Stutgard 1734 ; ibid. 17 ^9 ; ibid. 1753 ; 
Tubing. 1762; ibid. 1776; and Lips, curante Buttigio, 1737.— 
Another excellent edition, is Wetstein's Novum Testamen- 
tum post priores Steph. Curcellaei, &c. Amst. 1735. "This 
is the second edition of that in 1711, and is much more accu- 
rate, and, in almost every respect, more valuable." For an 
account of these, and other editions of the Greek Testament, 
the reader is referred to the Bibliotheca Sacra of Le Long, 
and to the Bibliographical Diet, of T\r. A. Clarke. 

(b) Instead of Pasoris Lexicon Nov. Test. (Lips. 1774,) 
Parkhurst's and Ewing's Greek and English Lexicons may be 
safely recommended. The former, however, gives the verbs 
only in the first person singular of the present tense ; and, on 
that account, the latter work may merit the preference or 
those who are learning the language^ because it makes the 
path more easy and more certain. Both have prefixed Greek 
Grammars to their Lexicons, which are esteemed. 

Those who understand the Latin language, and who have 
made a progress in the study of the Greek, need scarcely be 
referred to Schleusner's Novum Lexicon Grseco-Latinum in 
Novum Testamentum, 4 vol. 8vo. Lips. 1801. " This work," 
says Dr. Herbert Marsh, " contains a treasure of knowledge, 
with which no student in theology can dispense. The different 


senses of the words are investigated with the utmost philologi- 
cal precision ; they are illustrated by the principal passages of 
the Greek Testament; and the whole is arranged in the most 
perspicuous manner." 

(c) "Novum Testamentum Grsecum, Amst. form. min. 
Blaeu. 1663. A beautiful and correct edition; the paper and 
type remarkably good, and the press work well executed. It 
consists of 460 pages ; is a little more than four inches in 
length, about two and a quarter in breadth, and half an inch 
in thickness. A treasure to these who wish to make the 
Greek Testament their constant companion. Reprinted ibid. 
8vo, 1648. — Nov. Test, cum notis Scaligeri, Stephani, et Ca- 
sauboni, Gr. 8vo. Lond. 1633. A good edition, very thin and 
convenient for the pocket. — The most convenient and accu- 
rate for common use, is that of Gerhard of Maestrich, Wet- 
stein, Amst, 1735, 12mo. with various readings, parallel texts, 
and some useful maps. That by Bengel, Stutgard, 1734, 12mo, 
is a very accurate and excellent edition." Dr. A. Clarke. 

" Elzevir's editions in 12mo. are in great repute, especially 
that of 1624. Smytegelt's edition, 1675, is beautiful, and small 
for the pocket." Dr. E. Williams. 

It may be proper to observe, that one of these editions may 
prove sufficient for persons who are merely learning the Greek 
language, without the editions mentioned under note (#,) 
which are chiefly valuabln for critical purposes. 

(d) 1. J. Leusdeni Compendium Grsecum Nov. Test. 12mo. 
Lond. 1688. 

2. Nov. Test, in quo turn selecti versiculi 1900, qui- 
bus omnes N. Test, voces continentur, asteriscis notantur ; 
turn omnes et singula voces, semel vel saepius occurrentes pe° 
culiari nota distinguuntur ; auctore Joan. Leusden. l6mo. 
Amst. Wetstein, 1688; 18mo, Lond. Smith, 1698; 16mo, 
Amst. Wetstein, 1701 ; 16mo. ibid. 1740; 8vo. Amst. Wetst, 
16&8. Vide Dr. Clarke's Bib. J)ht 


(e) The best edition of St. Clement^ Epistles is that by 
Wotton, Gr. and Lat 8vo. Cantab. 1718. 

The most correct edition of the epistle ascribed to St. Bar= 
nabas, is 8vo. Lond. 1710. 

S. Ignatii Epistolce, juxta exemplar Mediceuro, una cum 
veteri Latina versione a Pearson et Smith ; Gr. et Lat. 4to. 
Oxon. 1709. For the best translations of the epistles ascribed 
to Clement, Barnabas, and Ignatius, see Abp. Wake's Genu- 
ine Epistles. 

S. Justini Martyris opera ab Oberthur, 8vo. Gr. et Lat. 
Wirceb. 1777, 2 vol. "A very good, neat, and portable edi- 

Athenagoras. The following is an excellent edition of his 
■works: Legatio— et de Resurrectione, &c. Gr. et Lat. cura 
Edvardi Decbair, 8vo. Lond. 1706. For a translation, see the 
Apologetics of Athenagoras by David Humphreys, Svo. Lond. 

S. Macarii llomilise, Gr. et Lat. 8vo. Lips. 2 vol. 1698 am! 
1699. '• A very neat edition." 

The reader is referred to Dr. A. Clarke's Concise View of 
Sacred Literature, for a complete account of the Works at- 
tributed to the Fathers. It contains likev ise notations of the 
first editions, the best editions, and the best English transla- 
tions ; besides other valuable matter. 

(/) 1. The best edition of the Segjtuagint fs that prepared 
by the late Dr. Holmes, which is now publishing. The firs" 
Volume appeared in 1798, since which period, several Parts 
have been published under the inspection of Mr. Parsons. 

Breitinger's edition of Grabe's Septuagint, 4 vol. 4to. Ti- 
guri. Helvet- 1730, ranks very high in the republic of letters. 
See Dr. A. Clarke's Bib. Diet. 

For learning the language and for common use, the follow- 
ing may be safely recommended, as substitutes. 

Septuaginta, 12mo. Cantab. 1665. " This Edition is well 
executed, mid has a learned preface by Bisl 


Septuaginta Milli, 12mo. 2 vol. Amstel. 1725. " A very cor* 
rect edition." 

2. Eusebii Historia Evangelica, a Guil. Reading, Gr. et Lat, 
fol. Cantab, 1720. " Best edition,— The best English transla- 
tion is the second edition of that published Lond. 1696, under 
the title of the History of the Church from our Lord's incar» 
nation, to the twelfth year of the Emperor Mauricius Tibe- 
,rius, or the year of Christ, 594. &c. &c." 

3 Chrysostomi Opera, Edit. Benedictin. Montfaucon. IS 
vol. Gr. et Lat. fol. Paris, 1718, 1738." « The best edition." 

4. S. Basilii Opera, Gr. et Lat. a Garnier Monacho Bene- 
dictino, 3 vol. fol. Paris, 1721. " Best edition." 

5. Michael Neander was a Protestant Divine, and born in 
Silesia, 1513. He was a rector of the university of Ilfeldt, and 
afterwards of that at Pforzheim. He wrote a Hebrew Gram- 
mar ; Pindarica Aristologia ; and other works ; but of those 
mentioned here, I have met with no notice, — See JWelch, 
Adam vit. Germ. Theol. 

6. Spicilegium Sanctorum Patrum, ut et Hsereticorum See- 
culi I. II. IU.— a Jo. Ernest. Grabe, Gr. et Lat. 8vo. Oxon. 
1700, 3 vol. et 8vo. Lond. 1714, 3 vol. For further informa- 
tion, see Dr. A. Clarke's Bib. Diet. Miscel. and Concise View, 

(g) Riveti Critica Sacra, cum Tractatu de Patrum Aucto- 
ritate, 1690, 8vo. 

itoberti Coci, Censura quorumdam Scriptorum, qui sub 
nomnibus Patrum antiquorum a Pontificiis citari solent, Lond. 
1523, 4to. 

Pearsonii Vindiciae Epistolarum S. Ignatii, 4to. Cantab» 
1672. Boyle calls this " an incomparable work ;" and " one 
of the first books in the world for criticism." 

(/*) 1. The best version of the Bible is undoubtedly our own 
authorized translation. 
Biblia Sacra Scholiis illustrate a J, Tremcllio et F. Junior 



fol. Lond. 1581.— "The version of Junias and Tremellius,' 7 
says Dr. A. Clarke, " has much of the true natural simplicity ; 
the chief Hebraisms are preserved and the whole exactly con- 
formable to the Hebrew text, without obscurity or barbarity." 

Opitii Atrium Linguae Sanctse, Lips. 1710. 

Biblia Sacra, per Xantem Pagninura, Lugd. 1527, 4to. Arias 
Montanus, who employed himself in improving Pagnini's ver- 
sion, says, " Ejus interpretatio, veluti omnium tutissima, He- 
braico textui adnecteretur." 

2. With respect to Hebrew Bibles, Van der Hooght's 8vo. 
2 vol. Arast. 1705, " for elegance and accuracy has no equal." 
Of this work, Mr* Frey has published a new and very correct 

u The most elegant and correct of the Anti-Masoretic Bi- 
bles, is Biblia Heb. Forsteri, 4to. 2 vol. Oxon. 1750.— Mr. 
Boothroyd has published an edition of the Hebrew Bible in 
quarto, without points, but with various readings and critical 

For those who are studying the language, the following will 
be more useful. 

Hutter's Hebrew Bible, Hamburg, 1587, and again in 1607. 
" This work is so printed, as that the student ascertains the 
roots at once, for which he is to search his Lexicon. A useful 
part of it, which Hutter calls Cubus Alphabeticus sanctae He- 
braeae Linguae is wanting in some copies; and of this purcha- 
sers should be aware." 

" But the most useful Hebrew Bible, for any learner who 
is even moderately acquainted with the Latin is that of Mon- 
tanus, with an interlineary Latin translation. The Latin word is 
put exactly above the Hebrew word to which it belongs, so 
that the student is sure to know the right sense of any word 
in the text. The best edition was printed at Antwerp, by C. 
Plantin, 1572, folio ; but there is a second and excellent edi- 
tion, ibid. 1584, folio. The latter folio editions, and especially 
the edition in 8yo. are miserably executed»" Dr. A. Clarke, 


[i) The best Hebrew Grammar on the Masoretic plan, is 
perhaps that by Mr. Israel Lyons, published by Lunn. Of 
Parkhurst's Grammar, prefixed to his Lexicon, the Editor of 
the British Critic has remarked, that "the experience of 
thirty years, has evinced it to be, beyond comparison, the best 
introduction to the Hebrew Language which ever made its ap- 
pearance." The reader should observe, that this is an Anti- 
Masoretic Grammar. Prey's Hebrew Grammar may be re- 
commended to the student as a very useful one in acquiring 
the language. 

(k) Opitius' Atrium Linguae Sanctae, Lips. 1710 ; Bythner's 
Lyra Prophetica, 4to Lond. 1664 ; and Leusden's Clavis Veteris 
Testamenti, Ultraj. 4to. 1683 ; are become extremely scarce. 
Opitius* Hebrew Lexicon, and Baldovius' Grammar are works, 
of which, notices have been sought in vain. There is another 
piece on a similar plan, Robertson's Clavis Pentateuchi, 1 vol. 
8vo. Edinburgi, 1770, but it must likewise be numbered among 
scarce works. These volumes, independently of their rarity, 
are calculated for those only who are acquainted with the 

(I) Opitius' Lexicon is become completely scarce, and I know 
of no Hebrew Lexicon on the same plan. When the student 
is advanced^ Parkhurst's Hebrew and English Lexicon, Lond. 
4to. 1792, and royal 8vo. 1800, may be safely recommended. 
Stockii Clavis Lingua? sanctse veteris Testamenti, 8vo. Lips, 
1753, " is," says Dr. E. Williams, " a work of uncommon 
merit, in consulting which, the serious biblical student is sel» 
dom disappointed." 

Buxtorfii Lexicon Hebraic, et Chald. Bas. 1735, 8vo. is 
much esteemed. But Frey's Hebrew Dictionary, in which 
the words are ranged alphabetically, and not according to th© 
roots is beyond all comparison the best for the Hebrew stu* 


(m) Johannis Leusdeni Compendium Biblicum, 8vo. Ultraj. 

(n) Those, however, who have not the advantage of a Tu- 
tor's assistance must not despond. " Nobody," says Mr. 
Locke, " knows what strength of parts he himself has, until 
he has tried them ; and of the understanding, one may most 
truly say, that its force is greater generally than it thinks, 
until it is put to it, ' Vires acquirit eundo.' The proper 
remedy here is, but to set the mind to work, and apply the 
thoughts vigorously to the business ; for it holds in the strug- 
gles of the mind, as in those of war, ' dum putant se vin- 
cere, vic£re ;" a persuasion that we shall overcome any dif- 
ficulties that we meet with in the sciences, seldom fails to 
carry us through them. Nobody knows the strength of his 
own mind, and the force of steady and regular application, 
until he has tried." 

(o) Biblia sine Punctis, 8vo. Lugd. Bat. Men. ben. Israel, 
about 1680. As a portable Bible, the following is recom- 
mended. — Biblia Hebraica sine Punctis ; versibus, capitibus, et 
sectionibus interstincta, notisque Masoretarum quas Kri et 
Ktif appellant instructa, ad Leusdenianam Editionem adorna- 
ta. Amstel. 1701, 18 mo. " This is a very small pocket size, 
and a beautiful little book. The Wetsteins of Amsterdam 
printed Leusden's Greek Testament on paper of exactly the 
same size, to- bind up with the Bible. The best edition of the 
Testament for this purpose, appears to be that of 1740, Amst. 
by Wetstein and Smith. ,, Dr. A. Clarke, 

(p) The ancient Jews divided the Bible into three parts ; 
the Law, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa ; for a detailed 
account of which the reader is referred to Buck's Theological 
Dictionary, vol. 1, p. 76 ; or the Encyclopaedia Perthensis, vol, 
3, p. 614. It is sufficient to notice here, that the Hasriogranbc 


comprehends the Psalms ; Proverbs ; Ecclesiastes ; Canticles ; 
Job; Rath; the Lamentations; Esther; Daniel; Ezra (inclu- 
ding Nehemiah ; ) and the Chronicles. Of these, a part of* 
Daniel and Ezra is in the Chaldee dialect. 

(q) John Conrad Danhawer, a German Divine of the Lu- 
theran Church, born at Brisgaw, in 1603. He was Professor 
of Eloquence at Strasburgh, where he died in 1666. (Morcri.) 
His works I have never seen. 

(r) 1. Black wall's Sacred Classics, Q vols. 8vo. London, 
1727 — 1737, &c. "is a work that gives many well chosen in- 
stances of passages in the classics which may justify many of 
those in Scripture that have been accounted solecisms." — Dr. 
Doddridge. It was indeed written, to prove that the Greek 
of the New Testament was classically just ; but it is generally 
allowed that the learned author failed in his main object; nor 
did the cause of truth require that he should succeed. It is, 
however, a most valuable production. The Latin scholar is 
referred to the following translation of it, which, says Dr A. 
Clarke, "is much more valaable than the English Original, 
being enriched with many critical observations, by the learned 
editor." — Blackwalli Sacri Classici a Wollio, 4to. Lips. 1736. 

2. Pfeifferi Opera Omnia, 1 vol. Ultraj. 1704. 

(.?) Glassi Salomonis Philologia Sacra, 4to. Lips 1725 ; and 
2 vols. 8vo. Lips. 1776. Dr. E. Williams notices editions 4to. 
1743, 1776, a Dathio. This " immortal Work," as Mosheim 
atyles it, requires no testimony in its favour. 

(t) 1. Clavis Scripturce Select®, seu de Sermone sacrarum 
Literarum ; auctore Matt. Flacco (often written Flaxio) Illy- 
rico. Basil. Oporinus, 1367, fol. 

Cu) Bnxtorfii Thesaurus Grammatics, Bt*s"u\ 1609* 


(v) 1. Antonius Schorus, de Ratione discendse docendacque 
Lingua Gracse et Latin», Argent. 1549, 8vo. et Argent. 
1571, 8vo. 

2. Antonii Schori Pleases Lingu» Latin» e Cicerone col- 
lect* Basil. 1550, 8vo. 

(w) The commentaries of Drusius, Grotius, &c are in the 
Critici Sacri, Lond. fol. 1660. 

(x) Philippi Herwarti Compendium, &c. of which an edi- 
tion was edited about the year 1670, by Frischmuth, a learned 

(y) 1. The Chaldee parts of Holy Writ are, of course» 
printed in all editions of the Hebrew Bible ; and the transla- 
tion, in our own authorized version. The Chaldee much re- 
sembles the Hebrew. 

2. " The Targum" is the designation given to the Chaldee 
paraphrases of the books of the Old Testament, of which there 
are no less than nine. Seven of them are written in the cor- 
rupt Jerusalem dialect of the Chaldee language ; but the Chal- 
dee of Onkelos and Jonathan is classical and pure." The two 
latter, have been printed by Jo. Buxtorf, in his great Hebrew 
Bible, 4 torn. fol. Basilia, 1620; and all of them, except the 
Targum of Rabbi Joseph the Blind, on the two books of Chro- 
nicles (the M. S." of which was not then discovered,) are 
printed in the London Polyglott. See also the second Edition 
of the Great Bible, Venice, 4 torn. fol. Bomberg. 1548. 

(z) *£))* V?3D (Michlal Iophi,) Perfectio Pulchritudinis, 
seu Commentarius in loca selecta vocesque et res difficiliores 
Sacrse Scripturse a R. Selemone Ben Meleeh; cum TMDW BpS 
Spicilegio, seu rerum praeteritarum et intermissarum ; Authore. 
R. Jacob. Abendana. Amst. 4to. Anno a Mundi condito 5421 
This edition is in the Library of the London Society-. 


Biblia sacra Hebraica et Chaldaica, cum Masora, Sec. edente 
Jo. Buxtorfio, Basilise, 1620, 4 torn. fol. This is Buxtorf's 
Bible, mentioned in the last note. 

For a complete account of the writings of the Rabbins, the 
reader is referred to Bartolocci Julii Bibliotheca magna Rab- 
binica, de Scriptoribus et Scriptis Hebraicis, Romse, 1675, 4 
vol. fol. and to Imbonati Bibliotheca Latino -Hebraica, &c. Ro- 
mas, 1694, fol. 



Historical Reading. 

(a) Our author's term historicus (historical,) is not, per- 
haps, very happily applied, and yet it does not seem easy to 
substitute a better. The reader will see, in the course of the 
chapter, that it is here taken in a wider sense than it usually 

(&) " The Sum and Substance of the Scriptures" is a de- 
signation frequently applied to some main doctrine of the Bi- 
ble i and thus Christ sometimes receives this character. In 
the instance before the Reader, it means a brief, but complete 
summary of the subjects, &c. recorded in the Scriptures. 
Such a synopsis is given by almost all commentators, as well 
as by Luther. 

Lutheri Opera omnia, 7 vol. fol. Witteburg. 1554, et ani>. 

(c) Heideggeri Enchiridion Biblicum, Lips. 1703. Tig. 1681, 
and Amst. 1688. 

(d) Wolffgangi Franzii Tractatus de Interpretatione Scrip- 
ture» Sacras, 1634, 4to. Vide page 294. 

The division of the sacred text into chapters and verses is 
of modern date. Hugo de Sancto Caro, who flourished in the 
thirteenth century, projected the first Concordance to the 
Scriptures, and found it necessary to ditide the booics into 


sections, and the sections into subdivisions, in order to find out 
with the more ease any word or passage of Scripture. These 
sections are the same as our chapters, but the subdivisions do 
not correspond with our verses. This was the invention of 
Rabbi Mordecai Nathan, about 1445, who, in imitation of Hu- 
go, drew up a concordance to the Hebrew Bible for the use 
of the Jews. See the Ency. Perth. Art. Bible. — "Black- 
wall's Sacred Classics," says Dr. Doddridge, " contains good 
observations on the divisions of chapters and verses, by which 
the sense is often obscured." 

(e) Chemnitii Loci Theologici, Francof. et Wirtemb. 

(/) 1. The student may find it useful to consult Locke's 
Common-Place Book to the Bible by Dodd, 4to. Lond. and 
Talbot's Complete Analysis and New Arrangement of the 
Bible, 4to. Leeds, " including the whole Scripture verbatim, 
scientifically arranged." Warden's System of Revealed Re- 
ligion, 4to. Lond. 1769, has its subjects " digested under pro- 
per heads, and is compiled in the express words of Scrip- 

2. Tossani Concordantia Bib. Lat. Junii et Tremellu, et 
Theod. Bez«, fol. 1639- 

(g ) The Works enumerated in this and the following Note, 
on the subject of External Circumstances, are in high re. 
pute ; and as they are within the compass of English Readers, 
and are equally as valuable as those scarce pieces which the 
Professor has introduced, no apology can be requisite for no- 
ticing them here. 

Waltheri Officina Biblica, 4to. 1668- 

Kortholtus (Christianus) de variis Scriptur» Sacrae Edition • 
ibus, Kilon. 1684, 4to. 

Father Richard Simon's Critical History of the Old and 


New Testaments, 2 vols. 8vo. " is a work of long established 
reputation. It was first published in French, in 1768" Dr. 
E. William's Christian Preacher, p. 416. 

Jo. Hen. Maii Examen Historise Critic» Novi Testamenti, 
Rich. Simon. Franco!'. 1690 ; and Gies. Has. 1694. 

Dr. Walton's Prolegomena treat on philological, chronologi- 
cal, geographical, and other points, in a very full and learned 
manner. See the Biblia Sacra Polyglotta, 6 vol. fol. Lond, 

"Campbell's Preliminary Dissertations to his new transla- 
tions of the Gospels, possess various excellencies, and rectify 
some considerable mistakes in Father Simon's Critical History, 
4 vols. 8vo. or (an inferior edition,) 2 vols, large 8vo. 1807." 
Vide Dr. E. Williams' Christian Preacher, p. 416 ; Forbes 5 
Life of Beattie, vol. 2, p. 112 ; Crit. Rev. vol. 67, p. 179, and 
vol. 68 p. 276. 

Dr. Gerard's Institutes of Biblical Criticism, 8vo. 1808.— 
For a high character of this work which lays down the Laws 
of Sacred Criticism, see the Annual Review, vol. 7, p. SOS, 
and the British Critic, vol. 32, p. 340. 

Professor Michaelis' Introduction to the New Testament^ 
translated and considerably augmented with Notes, and a 
Dissertation on the origin and composition of the first three 
Gospels by Dr. Herbert Marsh, 6 vols, large 8vo.-^' Mi- 
chaelis treats of the genuine antiquity, the language, readings, 
M. S. S. and principal editions of the New Testament ; also, 
of the marks of distinction, aspirations, and accents, the ancient 
versions, and the divine inspiration of the books." Dr. E. Wil- 
liams' Christian Preacher, p 416 ; Monthly Rev. vol. 17, p. 296, 
and vol. 18, p. 86 ; Brit. Crit. vol. 4. p. 54, and vol. 20, p. 667. 

Beausobre and L'Enfant's Introduction to the reading of the 
Holy Scriptures, intended chiefly for young students in divinity 3 
4to. Lond. 1784. Bishop Watson republished this piece in his 
collection of Theological Tracts, 6 vols. 8vo. Cantab. 1785 j 
and observes respecting it, that it fe '• a work of sreat merit j 


the authors have not left any topic untouched, on which the 
young student in divinity may be supposed to want information.* 

(/i) Bocharti Opera omnia, curis Joannis Leusden. et Petri 
Villemandy, Lugd. Bat. 1712, 3 vols. fol. " This," says D.r. 
A. Clarke, u is the best collection of his works." Besides the 
Hierozoicon mentioned by our aathor, "he wrote a very 
learned and accurate work on the geography of the Sacred 
Writings, entitled Phaleg and Canaan. Both these pieces, as 
well as several valuable dissertations in his works, throw 
much light on many obscure places in the Sacred Writings." 
"Dr. I. James Scheuchzer, is author of a very elaborate 
work, entitled Physica Sacra, which has been printed in Latin, 
German, and French, and forms a regular comment on all the 
books of the Bible, where any subject of natural history occurs. 
The learned author has availed himself of all the researches 
of his predecessors on the same subject, and has illustrated his 
works with 750 engravings of the different subjects in the ani- 
mal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms, to which there is any 
reference in the Scriptures. The German edition was pub- 
lished in 1731, in 15 vols, folio ; the Latin edition in 1731 ; and 
the French in 1732, 8 vols, folio, often bound in 4. The work 
is as rare, as it is useful and elegant." Dr. A. Clarke. 

Wolffgangi Franzii Animalium Historia Sacra, Amstel. 
1643, 12nio. and 4 torn. Franc. 

Calmet's Dictionary of the Holy Bible, explaining the names, 
histories, &c. of persons, places, and natural productions, 
mentioned in Scripture ; the antiquities, buildings, coins, 
habits, laws, customs, and peculiarities of the Jews and other 
Eastern nations ; with chronological tables, calenders, &c. &c 
To which are added, entirely new illustrations of Scripture 
incidents and expressions, selected from the accounts of the 
most authentic historians, travellers, &c. Illustrated by nu- 
merous Plates of views, plans, habits, &c. — Also, the Supple- 
ment to Calmet's Dictionary of the Holy Bible, containiri£ 


words omitted in the Dictionary, and further remarks, &c. in 
continuation of the fragments, 4to. See Dr. E. Williams' 
Christian Preacher, 2d edit. p. 423, Mon. Rev. 1797, p. 392 ; 
Crit. Rev. 1788. p. 462. 

Scripture Illustrated, by Engravings referring to Natural 
Science, Customs, Manners?&c. By the Editors of Calmet'3 
Dictionary, 4to. See the Monthly Rev. May, 1803; and 
Evangelical Mag. vol. 11. p. 347 — 9. 

A Companion to the Holy Bible ; the subject, Sacred Geo» 
graphy : being a geographical and historical account of places 
mentioned in the Holy Scriptures; originally composed by 
Edward Wells, D. D. Now revised, and corrected, and aug- 
mented by a series of geographical excursions, in which the 
geography of Scripture is confirmed by evidence entirely new 
jn its application, &c. By the Editor of Calmet's Dictionary ; 
with (forty four) maps and|plates*< — Lit. Panorama, vol. 5, p. 858, 
~-The original work is in the Bishop of Chester's List of 

Brown's (of Haddington) Dictionary of the Bible ; contain- 
ing an historical account of the persons; a geographical and 
historical account of the places ; a literal, critical, and syste- 
matical description of other objects, whether natural, artifi- 
cial, civil, religious, or military ; and the explication of the 
appellative terms mentioned in the writings of the Old and 
New Testaments. 5th Edition, 2 vols. 8vo. — I*or a high cha- 
racter of this work, see the Gospel Mag. 1778, p. 424 ; and the 
Evan. Mag. Nov. 1799. 

Prittii Introductio ad lectionem Novi Testament!, in qua 
quserem criticam historiam, chronologiam, et geographiam per- 
tinent breviter et perspicue exponuntur, 8vo. Lipsise 1704, and 
a fourth edition in 1737. " I have never," says Bishop Wat 
son,/' met with any book superior to this, as an introduction 
to the New Testament." 

Harraer's Observations on various parts of Scripture, revised, 
corrected; aad enlarged frora modern writers^ witl 


Clarke, L. L. D, and F. A. S. 4 vols. large Svo. 1808. This 
work, " casts much light on many difficult Texts, that relate to 
the customs and manners, civil, and religious, of the Asiatic 
nations, by quotations from the works of ancient and modern 
travellers into different parts of the East, who have described 
those customs, &c. as still subsisting." See Dr. Williams 3 
Christian Preacher, p. 418, and Eclec. Rev. vol. 5, p. 1115. 

S. Burder's Oriential Customs ; or, an Illustration of the 
Sacred Scriptures, by an explanatory application of the cus- 
toms and manners of the Eastern nations, 2 vols. Svo. This 
work is on the plan of the preceding, and contains much new 
matter. See the Monthly Rev. June, 1802 ; Brit. Crit. Feb. 
1804, and July 1807; Evan. Mag. March, 1802, and March 9 

" Fleury's Manners, Customs, Laws, Polity, and Religion 
of the Israelites," observes Dr. E. Williams, " is a pleasing 
and instructive little volume. Bishop Home says of it, "It is 
an excellent introduction to the reading of the Old Testament, 
and should be put into the hands of every young person." An 
improved edition of it has been published by Dr. Adam 
Clarke, 1802." 

Dr. Jennings' Jewish Antiquities ; a course of Lectures on 
Godwin's Moses and Aaron, 2 vols. 8vo. This work is in the 
Bishop of Chester's, and in Dr. E. Williams' Lists» See also' 
the Monthly Rev. vol. 35, p. 124. 

Godwin's Moses and Aaron, &c. 4to. 1C85, &c. See Chris- 
tian Preacher, p. 4SI. 

Buxtorni (Patri9) Synagoga Judaica, Basil, 12mo. 1661, and 
3vo. 1712. " It treats of the sects, rites, &c. of the Jews, in 
fifty chanters." 

Bryant's Observations upon the plagues inflicted upon the 
Egyptians, &c. 8vo. 1810. See Brit. Crit- vol. 4, p. 35. 

Leusden's Philologus Hebrseus, Philologus Hebrseo-Grsecus 
generalis, et Philologus Hebrajo-mixtus, una cum Spicilegio 
Pbilolo^ico, 4to, Basil 17.59, " This," says Dr. E, Williams, 


u is a work full of curious and useful information on biblical 

•' Lowman's Rationale of the Hebrew Ritual, 8vo. Lond. is 
much esteemed*" Christian Preacher, p. 416. 

Spencer de Legibus Hebraeorum Ritualibus, &c. 2 vol. foL 
Cantab. 1727. 

Wilson's Archaeological Dictionary; or classical Antiquities 
of the Jews, Greeks, and Romans. 

Lewis' Origines Hebncse, 4 vol. 8vo. 

lladriani Relandi Autiquitates Sacra; Yeterum llebneomin 
breviter delineate, l2mo. Traj. Bat. 1712 and 1717. 

Gulielmi Outrami de Sacrificiis libri duo, 4to. Lond. 1667. 
<c A work, observes Dr. A. Clarke, ** of considerable worth." 

Maurice's Dissertation on the Oriental Trinities (from the 
4th and 5th vols, of his Indian Antiquities ;) with all the plates 
illustrative of the subject, Svo. 1800. Brit. Crit. vol. 17, p. 

Bingham's Antiquities of the Christian Church ; 2 vol.fol. 
Lond» 1726. — The last ten works are in Dr. E. Williams' List. 

Dr. Hale's New Analysis of Chronology, 2 vol 4to. 1809-10» 
Dr. A. Clarke calls this "An elaborate and useful work." 

Archbishop Usher's Annals of the Old and Xew Testament, 
with the Synchronisms of heathen story to the destruction of 
Jerusalem, fol. Lond. 1658. 

Blair's Chronology and History o£ the World, from the 
creation to the j ear of Christ, 1768, illustrated in sixty -six 
Tables « of which four are introductory, and, include the 
centuries prior to the first Olympiad ; and each of the remain- 
ing fifty -two contains, in one expanded view, half a century ; 
with excellent maps. Lond. 1768. 

Playfair's System of Chronology ; containing an explana- 
tion of the principles of the science ; chronological history, 
lists, tables, and charts ; biographical index, &c. fol. Edinb, 
I7S4— " Both these works are admirable," says Dr. E. Wi\ 


liiams ; " and may well supersede Bedford, Tallents, ScaUger, 
Strauohins, &c. 

Dr. Robert Gray's Key to the Old Testament, and the 
Apocrypha : or an Account of their several books ; their con- 
tents and authors ; and of the times in which they were res- 
pectively written, 8vo. 1790. This work is in the Bishop of 
Chester's List 3 p. 9, and in Dr. E. Williams' Appendix to the 
Christian Preacher, p. 415. See also Dr. Herbert Marsh's 
Divinity Lectures, p. 49. 

Bishop Percy's Key to the New Testament, giving an ac- 
count of the several books, their contents, their authors, and 
of the times, places, and occasions on which they were writ- 
ten, 12mo. — "From Michaelis' Introduction, Lardner's His- 
tory, and Dr. Owen's Observations, Dr. Percy compiled that 
very useful manual called, A Key to the New Testament, 
which has gone through many editions, and is very properly 
purchased by most candidates for holy orders. Dr. Marsh's 
Lectures, p. 48. 

Collyer's Sacred Interpreter, or a practical introduction to 
a beneficial reading and a thorough understanding of the Holy 
Bible. "It treats," says Dr. E. Williams, «of the chief his- 
torical events of the four great monarchies of the Jewish 
Church, to the taking of Jerusalem : and the Design of each 
book of the Pentateuch, prophets, Gospels, &c." Dr. Her- 
bert Marsh styles it u a good popular preparation for the 
study of the Holy Scriptures." See Theol. Lectures, p. 4$. 

Father Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus ; or an Introduction to 
the Holy Scriptures, with Notes and Additions. Illustrated 
with Plates, 2 vol. 8vo. Lond. 1728. " This has often been 
republished In Latin, French, and English ; and is a work ol" 
^reat merit." Dr. A. Clarke, 

Jones' (Jeremiah) new and full method of settling the ca- 
nonical authority of the New Testament, 3 vol. 8vo. Lond. 
%7$6. This work " stands in high repute." Dr. E. Williams. 

T o^<?' Le^ttTres on the figurative Language of th'e Httfy 


Scriptures. To which are added, Lectures on the old and 
New Testaments, &c« 8vo. 1808, " These Lectures constitute 
in our opinion, one of the most ingenious and valuable works 
of their author. They are at once calculated to illustrate and 
enforce scriptural truths, to throw new light upon some doubt- 
ful passages, to enlarge the understanding, to affect the heart, 
and conscience, and stimulate to upright and holy- conduct." 
Eclectic Rev. Aug. 1809. 

Erown's (of Haddington) brief view of the figures, and ex- 
plication of the metaphors, contained in Scripture, 12ma, 

Paley's Horse Paulime ; or the Truth of the Scripture His- 
tory of St. Paul, evinced by a comparison of the Epistles 
which bear his name, with the Acts of the Apostles, and with 
one another. 5th Ed. 8vo. "If the Epistles attributed to St. 
Paul, and the l^story of this Apostle, supposed to be written 
by St. Luke, were forgeries, it might be expected that, in some 
instances, they would contradict each other. The coinci- 
dence, on the other hand, might be glaring, and ostentatiously 
brought forward ; or the epistles might consist of general doc- 
trines, without alluding to any particular transactions of the 
history, styled in our translation, the acts of the Apostles, 
Either peculiarity might subject them to suspicion — On the 
contrary, though there are not many personal or secular re- 
marks in these epistles, they sometimes occur, apparently 
without design ; and these, when traced in other epistles, or 
the history of St. Paul; are consistent, and support each other. 

The obscure and unexpected coincidences it is Dr. P's. ob- 
ject to point out." Crit. Rev. vol. 70, p. 595.— This piece may 
be useful to those who study St. Paul's epistles ; vide p. 205 
of this work. 

Dr. Lardner's works, 11 vol. 8vo. Lond. 1788. The first 
six volumes contain the Credibility ; and the seventh, eighth, 
and ninth, the Jewish and Heathen Testimonies, and the His 


\ory of Heretics. The reader is referred to Dr. A. Clarke's 
List of Critical works on the New Testament, for a high cha* 
racter of these volumes. 

Bp. Lowth's Lectures on the Sacred poetry of the He- 
brews, 2 vol. 8vo. 1787, translated from the Latin by Dr. 
George Gregory, and enriched with the principal notes of 
Professor Michaelis and others. "In this admired work," 
Says Bishop Porteus, " Dr. Lowth has described and illustra- 
ted the properties and excellencies of each particular species of 
that poetry with such admirable taste and skill, with such exu- 
berant richness of imagery, such variety, copiousness, elegance, 
and rotundity of style, as few writers have yet equalled in a 
language not their own." — The title of the original work, 
which every Latin scholar must prefer, is De Sacra PoesiHe- 
braeorum. a Rob. Lowth. Oxon. 1775, 2 vols. 8vo. See also Dr. 
&. Williams' and Bishop Watson's Lists, and Dr. A. Clarke's 
Bib. Diet. 

Shuckford's Connexion of Sacred and Profane History, 
from the creation of the world to the dissolution of the Assy- 
rian empire, 4 vol. 8vo. Lond. edited by Dr. A. Clarke. 

Prideaux's Connexion of the Old and New Testament, in 
the history of the Jews and neighbouring nations, from the de- 
clension of the kingdom of Israel and Judah, to the time of 
Christ, 4 vol, 8vo. Lond. 1749, &c 

Josepki opera Gr. et Lat. excus. ad Edit. Lugd. Bat. Sieg, 
Havercampii, cum Oxon. Hudsonii Collatura curu Oberthur* 
3 vol. Svo. maj. Lips. 1782-85. " A valuable edition by a very 
learned man. The best and most accurate Translation is by 
Whiston, fol. Lond. 1737. On the later ones in general, no 
dependence can be placed." Dr. A. Clarke. 

Glassii Philologia Sacra, qua totius sacro-sanctcs Vet. et 
Nov. Test. Scripture, turn stylus et literatura, turn sensus et 
genuinse interpretationis ratio expenditur. See note (s) m the 
preceding chapter. 



Blackwall's Sacred classics, &c. See note (r) ibid. 
"Elsneri Observationes Sacrein Novi Foederis libros, 2 vol. 
Svo. Trajecti ad Rhenum, 1720, and 

" Alberti Observationes Philologicae in Sacros Novi Foederis 
libros, Svo. Ludg. Bat. 1725, stand high as critical books." 
Dr. E. Williams. 
Nic. de Mortier Etymologise Sacre, fol. Rom. 1705. 
J. Alb. Bengelii, Ordo temporum a principiis per periodcs 
osconomiee divine, &c. 8vo. Stutgard. 1770. 

J. Alb. Bengelii Apparatus Criticus Novi Testament!, a 
Burch, Tubing. Cotta, 1763. — " Whatever Bengel has done on 
the Scriptures," says Dr. A. Clarke, "is of great importance 
to saored criticism. Such solid judgment, profound learning, 
and deep piety, rarely ever meet in the same person," 
Griesbaehii Cure in historiam Textus, Sec. 4to. Jens, 1777. 
-—— — — - Synopsis Evangeliorum, 8vo. liaise 1776. 

__ Symbol ce Criticre, Pars 1. 8vo. Halse 1785 ; Pars 

II. Halas, 1793. — " All the works of this critic are highly and 
deservedly esteemed." Dr. A. Clarke's Bib. Diet. 
Matth. Martini Cadmus Greco-Phoenix, 8vo. 16S1. 
Eilhardi Lubini Clavis Nov. Test. 4to. Rostoch, 1614. 
Geor. Crauscri Phosphorus,Grecarum Vocum ct Phrasium 
N. Test. &c. 4to. Francof. et Lips. 1676, 
J. C. Dicterici Antiquitates N. Test, fob Franc. 1671. 
A Cocquii Observationes Criticb-sacrse in N. Test. — de Phi- 
losophic et Doctrina morum, &c. 4to. L. Bat. 1678. 

P. S. Papenii Lexicou Onomato-Phraseologicum in Cod. Sac. 
Nov* Test. 4to. Lips- 17'2S. The last thirteen works are in 
Dr. A. Clarke's List of Critical Works on the New Test. 

"Jo. Tobise Krebsii Observationes in Nov. Testam. e Flav. 
Joseph o, 8vo. Lips. 1754. — Geo. Dav. Kypke Observationes in 
Novi Foederis Libros, ex auctoribus, potissimum Grecis, &c. 
2 vol. 8vo. Vratislavise, 1755. — Georgii Rapheiii Annotationes 
in Sacram Scripturam, &c. Lugd. 1747, 2 vol. 8vo. — Kvebs 
throws much light on different facts and form? of sne^ch in iha 


New Testament, by his quotations from Josephus; Kypke 
does the same, by an appeal to the Greek Writers ; and Ra- 
pheliu8 gives historical elucidation of the Old, and philological 
observations on the New Testament, drawn particularly from 
Xenophon, Polybius, Arrian, and Herodotus." Dr. A. Clarke. 

Sharpe's (Granville) Three Tracts on the Syntax and Pro- 
nunciation of the Hebrew tongue ; &c. 12mo 1804« Evan. 
Mag. 1S05, p. 82. See also the Christian Observer, 1804, p. 

Sharpe's (Granville) Remarks on the uses of the Definitive 
Article, in the Greek Text of the New, Testament. For a 
high character of this work, see Bishop Burgess* Letter to Mr. 
Sharpe, prefixed to the second edition. Also Wordsworth's 
Six Letters, and Middleton's Doctrine of the Greek Ar- 

Capelli (Ludovici) Arcanum punctationis revelatum. Lugd. 
1624, 4to. This work, by questioning the antiquity of the 
vowel-points, gave rise to a controversy, which has never yet 
been decided. " The best defence of them," according to Dr. 
A. Clarke, "is that by Mr. Peter Whitfield, Liverpool, 
1748, 4to. 

Bos Lamberti Observationes in Nov. Test. Francq.1713, 8vo. 

Bos Lamberti Ellipses Grsecse, cum notis variorum ; ex re- 
censione Nic. Sshwebellii. Norimb. 1763, 8vo.— Cura Mi- 
ehaelis, Halse, 1765, 8vo. «Bos," says Dr. \. Clarke, "was 
a profound scholar, and his writings are all deservedly es- 

The works enumerated in this and the preceding Note, 
with some that are mentioned in other parts of the volume, 
constitute a list of the more valuable pieces on biblical criti- 
cism and external circumstances ; and, as they are immediately 
connected with the study of the Scriptures, they form a requi- 
site, and, it is hoped, valuable appendage to the present trea- 
tise. The Translator has bestowed some pains to make the 
selection as accurate and comnW*» as possible, though it ta 


natural to expect, that not a few standard works may have es* 
caped his notice.— With reBpect to the mode in which they 
are arranged, other writers have not confined themselves to 
any particular order ; and, unless it be that in which these 
volumes should be studied, none seems strictly necessary* On 
this point the reader is left to make his own election» Some 
pieces, it is evident, are preparatory to the study of the sacred 
text ; while others should be read consecutively ; but all should 
be perused in a direct subordination to a spiritual acquaintance 
with the livelv Oracles. 



Analytical Reading. 

(a) " The first work of the mind," observes Dr. Watts, 
*' is perception, whereby our ideas are framed ; and the se- 
cond is judgment, which joins or disjoins our ideas, and forms 
a proposition ; so, the third is reasoning, which joins seve- 
ral propositions together, and makes a syllogism. ; that is, an 
argument -whereby ive are wont to infer something that is less 
known, from truths which are more evident. Thus, 

Our Creator must be worshipped. 

God is our Creator. 

Therefore, God must be worshipped. 
This is an example of a syllogism ; of which, u the matter 
is always made up of three propositions s and these proposi- 
tions are made up of three ideas or terms. The three terms 
are the major, the minor, and the middle. The middle term 
is the third idea, invented and disposed in two propositions, in 
suoh a manner as to show the connexion between the major 
and minor term in the conclusion." Dr. Watts' Logic, Part 
3. Chap. I. &o. 

(b) The reader may refer to our author's Analyses of the 
epistles to the Colossians and Ephesians, appended to the body 
of this work. 

(f) See Dr. Watts' IiOgic, Prirt 3. 


(d) " The subject of a proposition is that, concerning which 
any thing is affirmed or denied ; and the predicate is that 
which is affirmed or denied of the subject. Thus, * Plato was 
a Philosopher,' is a proposition ; in which, Plato is the sub- 
ject, and philosopher the predicate" Dr. Watts. 

(e) " The art of reasoning' or inferring one thing from ano- 
ther, is generally expressed and known by the particle there- 
fore, when the argument is formed according to the rules of 

art ; though in common discourse and writing, such casual 
particles SLsfor, because, manifest the act of reasoning, as well 
as the illative particles, then and therefore ; and wheresoever 
any of these words are used, there is a perfect syllogism ex- 
pressed or implied ; though perhaps the three propositions do 
not appear, or are not placed in regular form." Watts. 




Expository Reading, 

(a) 1. II. Stephani Concordantiae Grxco-Latinae, Geneva^ 
1624, and Schmidii Concordantiae Graecae, Novi Testament^ 
fol. Lips. 1717. The latter "is," says Dr. A. Clarke, "a 
most useful and excellent work, and far superior to the 

2. Buxtorfii Concordantiae Bibliorum Hebraicae at Chalda- 
ica?, Basil. 1632 fol. ««This is a work of great labour. Dr. 
Taylor of Norwich translated and greatly improved it in a 
work entitled tlie Hebrew Concordance adapted to the Eng- 
lish Bible, disposed after the manner of Buxtorf, 2 vol. fol. 
Lond. 1754. This latter is an invaluable work ; and will con- 
tinue in high repute, while the Hebrew Scriptures are held in 
the estimation they deserve." Dr. A. Clarke. 

Christian! Noldii Concordantise Particularum Ebraeo-Chal- 
daicarum in quibus partium indeclinabilium quae occurrunt in 
Fontibus, et hactenus non expositae sunt in Lexicis aut Con- 
cordantiis, natura et sensuum varietas ostenditur. Digerun- 
tur ea methodi ut Lexici et Concordantiarum loco simul esse 
possint. Accommodantur hue etiam particular Graecae, &c, 
&c. 4to. Jen», 1734. ««So complete is this Concordance, that 
it has scarcely left any thing on the subject unfinished ; and it 


is of the greatest importance to every biblical student and cri- 
tic." Dr. A.Clarke. 

Abrabami Trommii Concordantise GrEecae Versionis vnlgo 
diet» LXX Interpretum, cujus voces secundum ordinem ele- 
mentorum sermonis Graeci digest» recensentur, kc. Legun- 
tur hie praeterea voces Graec» pro Hebraicis redditse ab anti- 
quis omnibus Veteris Test. Interpretibus, quorum non nisi 
fragmenta extant, Aquila, Symmacho, Theodotione, et aliis. 
Amstel- et Traject, ad Rhen. 1718, 2 vol. fol. "This," re- 
marks Dr. A. Clarke, M is an elaborate and useful work." 

(&) Cruden's Complete Concordance, 4to. Lond. and 4ta 
Edinb. Of this work Dr, E. Williams observes, that it is "so 
complete, that nothing remains materially deficient." 

Crutwell's Concordance of Parallel Passages of Scripture, 
collected from Bibles and Commentaries which have been 
published in Hebrew, Latin, French, Italian, Spanish, English, 
&c. 4to. 1790. " This work," says Dr. E. Williams, « sells 
high, but the biblical student may expect good interest»" It 
is in the Bishop of Lincoln's list. 

The best Bible on the plan of Canne's appears to be Scott's, 
a new edition of which has been lately published by the author 
himself. Mr. S. has availed himself of the pious labours of his 
predecessors in selecting Marginal References, especially of 
the latter Editions of the Oxford Bible in quarto, of Mr. 
Brown's Bible, and Mr. Canne's." To collect these, " ex- 
clusively employed the author full four years as his unremit- 
ting labour." 

(c) u Analogy of faith is the proportion that the doctrines of 
the gospel bear to each other ; or, the close connexion be- 
tween the truths of revealed religion : Rom. xii. 6. It is evi- 
dent that the Almighty doth not act without a design in the 
system of Christianity, any more than he does in the works of 
Nature. Now this design must bo uniform ; for as, in the sys- 


tem of the nniverse, every part is proportioned to the "whole;, 
and made subservient to it; so, in the system of the gospel, all 
the various truths, doctrines, declarations, precepts, and pro- 
mises, must correspond with, and tend to the end designed. 
For instance, supposing the gloiy of God in the salvation of 
man by free grace, be the grand design ; then, whatever doc- 
trine, assertion, or hypothesis agrees not with this, it is to he 
considered a9 false." Buck's Theol. Diet. sub. Art. 

(J) The following Rules are proposed by that able exposi* 
tor, Dr. Campbell, and will, I doubt net, be acceptable to the 

1. Get acquainted with each writer's style. 

2. Inquire carefully into the character, the situation, and the 
office of the writer ; the time, the place, the occasion, of his 
writing ; and the people for whose immediate use he'origmaiiy 
intended his work. 

5. Consider the principal scope of the hook, and the parti- 
culars chiefly observable in the method by which the writer 
has purposed to execute his design. 

4. Where the phrase is obscure, the context must be con- 
sulted. This, however, will not always answer. 

5. If it do not, consider whether the phrase be any of the 
writer's peculiarities ; if so, it must be inquired what is the 
acceptation in which he employs it in other places. 

6. If this be not sufficient, recourse should be had to the 
parallel passages, if there be an}' such in the other sacred 

7. If this throw no light, consult the N$w Testament and 
the Septuagint, where the word may be used. 

S. If the term be on'y once used in Scripture, then recur to 
the ordinary acceptation of the term in classical authors. 

0. Sometimes reference may be had to the Fathers. 

10. The ancient versions, as well as modern scholiasts, an» 
MitorSj and transl be consulted. 


11. The analogy of faith, and the etymology of the word, 
must be used with caution. 

(e) Martin Gejer, a German Divine, born at Leipsic, in 
1614. His Commentaries on the Old Testament were printed 
in 2 vols. fol. Moreri. 

(/) Vide the preceding notes (^) and (h) in Part I . 
Chap. II. 

(g) The following list of Commentaries, which as Externa": 
Helps ought to be noticed here, includes those which are highly 
esteemed and well recommended. 


u Brennius.- — His notes are exceedingly short, but very im- 
portant. And there was reason to say of him, Ubi bene, 7iemcy 
melius, &c". Dr. Doddridge. 

"Brown's Self-Interpreting Bible is an admirable book ei- 
ther for ministers or families. Its chief excellencies are the 
marginal references, which are exceedingly useful to preach- 
ers ; and the close, plain, and practical improvement to each 
chapter. " (Buck.) 2 vols. 4to. 1808. 

Calmet's Biblia Sacra Latina et Gallice, cum Comment, 
Literal et Critic, fol. 8 vol. in 9, Paris, 1724.— M This is the 
best edition ; but that done since in 26 vol. fol. has the author's 
dissertations. Besides this, there is an edition in 9 vol. fol. 
Paris, Emery, Saugrain and Martin, 1719 — 17-26. It has a 
vast apparatus of Prefaces and Dissertations, in which immense 
learning, good sense, sound judgment, and deep piety, are in- 
variably displayed. Though the Vulgate is his text, yet he 
notices all its variations from the Hebrew and Greek originals, 
and generally builds his criticisms on these. He quotes all the 
ancient Commentators, and most of the modern, whether Ca= 
tholic or Protestant. His Illustrations of many difficult Texts, 


referring to Idolatrous Customs, Rites, Ceremonies, &c, from 
the Greek and Roman Classics are abundant, appropriate, and 
successful. His Tables, Maps, Plans, &c. are very judiciously 
constructed, and, consequently, very useful. This is, without 
exception, the best Comment ever published on the Sacred 
Writings, either by Catholics or Protestants." Dr. A. Clarke. 

Clarke's (Samuel) Annotations, 1 vol. fol. " The notes are 
very short, and many of them but a word or two. They are 
placed under the several verses with marks of reference, 
Frequently a sentence or expression is explained merely by 
referring to some other passage. Dr. Doddridge made this 
his common place book, in the margin of which, he inserted 
notes and references in short hand, and used to recommend 
it to his pupils (as preferable to all others for this purpose.") 
Palmer's Noncon. Mem. 

" Coke (the Rev. Dr. ) has lately published a Commentary 
on the Old and New Testaments, in 6 vol. 4to. This is, in 
the main, a reprint of the work of Dr. Dodd, with several re- 
trenchments and some additional reflections ; but all the mar* 
ginal readings and parallel texts are entirely omitted." Br, 
A. Clarke. 

"Cradock's three volumes are very valuable; though I 
think (contrary to most others,) that the last two on the New 
Testament are much better than the first on the Old. His 
extracts in the margin from Hammond, Lightfoot, and Grc- 
tius are very judicious ; and 1 think, on the whole, I never 
read any one author, that assisted me more in what relates to 
the New Testament. His schemes of the Epistles are gene- 
rally more just than those of the ingenious writers mentioned 
above ; because he takes the design of the apostles to be, as it 
certainly was, more general than they suppose." Dr. Dod° 

" Dodd (the late Dr. Wm.) published a Commentary on the 
Old and New Testaments, 3 vols. fol. Lond. 1770. Much of 
it h taken from the Comment of Father Calmet, already de* 


scribed ; but he has enriched his work by many valuable notes, 
which he extracted from the inedited papers of Lord Claren- 
don, Dr. Waterland, and Mr. Locke. He has also borrowed 
many important notes from Father Houbigant. This work, 
as giving in general the true sense of the Scriptures, is by far 
the best comment that has yet appeared in the English lan- 
guage." Dr. A. Clarke. 

* Gill's Exposition abounds with rabbinical and theological 
information; but, though upon the whole a very valuable 
work, it is often prolix and tautological, and sometimes injudi- 
cious." (Dr. E. Williams.) «'He was a very learned and 
good man ; but has often lost sight of his better judgment in 
spiritualizing his text." (Dr. A. Clarke.) Of this work, Dr. 
Rippon has recently published a new edition, in 9 vols. 4to. 

" A work entitled An Illustration of the Sacred Writings, 
was published by Mr. Goadby, at Sherborne. It contains many 
judicious notes ; has gone through several editions ; and, while 
it seems to be orthodox, is written entirely on the Arian hy- 
pothesis." Dr. A. Clarke. 

Grotii Opera Theologica. fol. 4 vol. " The best edition is 
that of London, 1697." — " Grotius has done more to illustrate 
the Scriptures by what is called profane learning» than per- 
haps almost all the other Commentators put together."— 
* To give the literal and genuine sense of the Sacred Writings 
is always the laudable study of this great man." — " Neverthe- 
less, he too often gives up prophecies which, in their original 
sense, relate to the Messiah." Dr. Doddridge, and Dr. A. 

<( Henry is perhaps the only commentator so large, that de- 
serves to be entirely and attentively read through. The re* 
markable passages, I think, should be marked. There is 
much to be learned in this work in a speculative, and still 
more in a practical way. The last volume is not, on the whole, 
equal to the rest ; though the Exposition of the Romans, be- 
gun bv H.enrv frod finished bv Dr. Evans, is th*» brst I eve? 


saw." (Or. Doddridge.) It is to be observed that Mr. Henry 
did not live ro complete this work ; part of the Romans, as 
Dr. Doddridge remarks, and all the subsequent books, were 
done by other hands. A new and correct edition has been 
lately published by Messrs. Hughes and Burder, in 6 vols. 4to. 
" Jerome is one of the most useful of the Fathers, whether 
Greek or Latin. His Translation of the Scriptures, commonly 
called the Vulgate, is an invaluable work, of great authority 
in biblical criticism, and justly ranked with the original texts." 
• — u He is author of a very valuable comment on all the Bible." 
— - " His commentaries on the Prophets, Ecclesiastes, Matthew, 
the Epistles to the Galatians, Ephesians, Titus, and Philemon, 
are very valuable." Hieronyrai opera a Dominico Vallarsio, 
fol. Veronse, 1734-42, 11 vols. "This is called the best edi- 
tion." Dr. A. Clarke. 

" Martin (David of Utrecht,) not only translated the whole 
of the Old and New Testaments into French, but also wrote 
short notes on both, which contain much good sense, learning, 
and piety. Amsterdam, 1707, 2 vols, fol." Dr. A. Clarke. 

Poole's Annotations, 2 vols. fol. Lond. 1688, and a late edi- 
tion, 4 vols. 4to. Edinb. Of the first volume, Dr. Doddridge 
says, it is " incomparably good ;" and Dr. A. Clarke, in refe- 
rence to the whole, observes that " the notes are short, but 
abound with good sense and seund judgment." 

" Priestley (the late Dr.) compiled a body of notes on the 
Old and New Testaments, in 3 vols. 8vo. published at North- 
umberland in America, 1804. Though the Doctor keeps his 
own creed (Unitarianism,) continually in view, especially 
when considering those Texts which other religious people 
adduce in favour of theirs, yet his work contains many valua- 
ble Notes and observations, especially on the philosophy, na- 
tural history, geography, and chronology of the Scriptures ; 
and to these subjects, few men in Europe were better qualified 
f.o do justice." Dj\ A. Clarke. 



" Robertson is in rather too pedantic a form ; but, upon the 
whole, the analysis is very good ; and, perhaps, those who 
have studied their Bibles most closely, and know where diffi- 
culties in the connexion lie, will approve it most ; especially 
on the Old Testament, which far exceeds the New." Dr. 

Scott's Bible, a new edition of which has been lately pub- 
lished, under the care of the author himself. " The author's 
aim seems to be, to speak plain truth to plain men ; and, for 
this purpose, he has interspersed a multitude of practical ob- 
servations all through the text, which cannot fail, from tbe 
spirit of sound piety which they breathe, of being very useful." 
(Dr. A. Clarke.) The recommendation of the edition now 
publishing at New York, which is signed by some of the first 
divines in the United States, gives the following appropriate 
character of the work. — u Scott's Family Bible is a work of 
the greatest merit and usefulness. The author has examined 
the Sacred Text with uncommon care, and given an exposi* 
tion of it, at once judicious, evangelical, and interesting. We 
consider it peculiarly adapted for the instruction, consolation, 
and establishment of the great body of Christians." 

Walafridi Strabunis Glosss Ordinaria?, " is properly a Ca- 
tena or collection of all Comments of the Greek and Latin Fa* 
thers prior to his time. The best edition of this valuable work 
was printed at Antwerp in 1634." Dr. A. Clarke. 

" Wells' book is more despised than it ought to be. The 
character of the author was deservedly low, and his style 
sometimes is intolerably bad ; but his method of division is 
very clear. He has plundered a great many excellent writers; 
brought together their spoils in a little room ; added, here and 
there, some very good notes of his own ; and he has well cor- 
rected the common version." Dr. Doddridge. 

Wesley's Notes on the Old and New Testaments, 4 vols. 
4to. Bristol, 1765. "The notes on the Old Testament, arc 
allowed, on all hands, to be mcajrre awl unsatisfactory (which 


happened, in consequence of the author's retrenching' them in 
order to get the work within the prescribed limits of four vo~ 
fames.) The notes on the New Testament, which have gone 
through several editions, are of a widely different description ; 
though short, they are always judicious, accurate, spiritual, 
terse, an d impressive, and possess the happy and rare quality 
of leading the reader immediately to God and his own heart." 
Dr. A. Clarke. 

S. Burder's Scripture Expositor, 4to. <c A principal object 
of this work, is to illustrate the Scripture, by references to the 
customs and literature of the East. To this particular study, 
the author has been long accustomed, and the fruits of his la- 
bours are already before the public, in his Oriental Customs, 
&c" — " The practical observations are concise but good ; and 
the principles of the v/ork purely evangelical." Evan. Mag. 

Besides the above works, there are several others in the 
course of publication which merit notice. 

Benson's (the Rev. Joseph) Bible, fol. and 4to. with Notes, 
critical, explanatory, and practical. Dr, A. Clarke observes, 
that "from the author's learning, piety, and theological 
knowledge, much may be expected, if the confined limits of 
his plan (one vol. fol.,) do not prevent him from enriching 
the work with his own valuable criticisms and observations." 
I am happy to add, that it has been found necessary to extend 
the work beyond the limits proposed. 

Dr Adam Clarke's Commentary and Critical Notes. "In 
this edition of the Bible, the whole of the Text has been col- 
lated with the most correct copies of the present authorized 
version : — the most difficult words in the Hebrew and Greek 
Originals analyzed and explained : — the most important Read» 
£ngs in the Collations of Kennicott and De Rossi, on the Old 
Testament, and in those of Mill, Griesbach, and Wetstein, 
on the New, noticed :— the Date of every Transaction, as far 
Bca k Vr - &$en ascertained by the best Ckntoologets marked; 


■—the peculiar customs of the Jews and neighbouring Nations, 
so frequently alluded to by the Prophets, Evangelists, and 
Apostles, explained from the best Asiatic Authorities : the 
great Doctrines of the Law and Gospel of God, defined, illus- 
trated, and defended : and the whole applied to the impor- 
tant purposes of Practical Christianity." How eminently cal- 
culated Dr. A Clarke is for this learned and honourable la- 
bour, and how ably the whole has hitherto been executed, it 
is unnecessary to inform the reader. 

ON the old testament. 

" Pyle's Paraphrase upon the Old Testament, in 4 vols. 
8vo. 16 an elegant and judicious contraction of Bishop Patrick's 
Comment, and vastly to be preferred to his Paraphrase on the 
Epistles." Dr. Doddridge. 

« c Orton's Exposition of the Old Testament, 6 vols. 8vo. 
Shrewsbury, 1787, has many good hints ; but is chiefly valua- 
ble for the reflections at the close of each chapter." Dr. E. 


Baxter's New Testament with Notes, 8vo. 1695. " The 
Notes are interspersed with the text, and are very short ; but 
they contain much sound sense and piety" Dr. A. Clarke. 

J. Bengelii Gnomon Novi Testament! in quo ex nativa Ver- 
borum vi, Simplicitas, Profunditas, Concinnitas, Salubritas Sen- 
suum Celestium indicatur, 4to. Ulmce, Gaum, 1763. " An 
excellent edition." Republished 4to. Tubing. Cotta, 1773. 
This work "contains an instructive preface, a perspicuous 
analysis of each book, with short notes ; in the true taste of 
judicious criticism. His plan is a perfect contrast of that of 
Wolfius : — • Simplicem fere veritatem, sine sylva multarum 
opinionum, propono.' " In the course of this work, the reader 
must have remarked the great stress which our author has laid 
on reading the Scriptures by complete subjects, and not ac. 


cording to the arbitrary division of chapters ; " by wh* With 
Dr. Doddridge remarks, " the sense of Scripture is ofteny ew 
scured." I am happy to add, on the authority of Dr. f 
Clarke, that " Bengel is author of an edition of the New Tes- 
tament, with such a judicious division of it into paragraphs, 
as has never been equalled y and perhaps never can be ex* 
celled. See note (a) Chap. I. Part I. 

Bezae Annotationes, in quibus ratio interpretationis reddi- 
tur ; accessit etiam J. Camerarii in Novum Fosdus Commen- 
tarius, fol. Cantab. 1642. "The best edition."—-" Beza is 
undoubtedly the best critic on the Greek language of any com- 
mentator we have. There is no translation, that I know ofj 
equal to his ; and his remarks on Erasmus and the vulgar La» 
tin, are wrought up to the utmost degree of exactness. On 
the whole it is an invaluable treasure, and deserves to be read 
with the utmost attention." (Dr. Doddridge.) "It contains, 
besides the old Latin version, Beza's own version ; and in tho 
side margin is given a summary of the passage, and, in the ar- 
gumentative parts, the connexion. The Annotations are chiefly 
verbal criticisms, tending to justify his version." Dr. E. Wil- 

Burkitt's Commentary, 4to. "has but few valuable criti- 
cisms ; but he has many schemes of old sermons. His senti- 
ments vary in different parts of his work, as the authors whence 
he took his materials, were orthodox or not." (Dr. Doddridge.) 
"Burkitt contains many ingenious observations, fine turns, 
natural plans, and pungent addresses to the conscience. 
(Buck.) Dr. A. Clarke considers it "both pious and prac- 
tical ; but not distinguished either by depth of learning or 

Doddridge's Family Expositor, or a Paraphrase and Ver- 
sion of the New Testament, with critical notes and a practi- 
cal improvement of each Section, 4 vol, 4to. Dr. Doddridge 
is "a masterly expositor, and has illustrated the gospels in the 
most elegant taste of criticism ; with the most amiable spirit 

jtes by hie translator, 

.ion ; and without any mixture of, the malignant leaven 
—the per w singularities of party." (Hervey ) «'The Family 
so freq» i >os, t° r ( w *th the exception of the Paraphrase) is a very 
Apo^ a ^ lCIOUS w0l *k- It has been long highly esteemed and is wor- 
pr thy of all the credit it has among religious people." Dr. A. 

" Erasmus is well known, not only as an able Editor of the 
Greek Testament, but as an excellent Commentator upon it. 
For many years, the Notes of Erasmus served for the founda- 
tion of all the Comments that were written on the New Tes- 
tament ; and his Latin version itself was deemed an excellent 
Comment on the Text, because of its faithfulness and simpli- 
city." (Dr. A. Clarke.) " Erasmus is not equally accurate 
with Beza ; but his Latin is fine, and he has written in a plea- 
sant style. There are many good remarks on the vulgar trans- 
lation, some early various readings, and some pretty large cri- 
tical dissertations ; but it is by no means of a piece, and has 
many marks of haste and inaccuracy." (Dr. Doddridge.) " The 
best edition of his works is, 11 vols. fol. Lugd. Bat. 1703. cura 
Clerici." — Bib. Dictionary, 

Gillies' New Testament, with Devotional Reflections, 2 
vols. 8vo. 1810. '* What Dr. Erskine says of this author's 
works in general, applies peculiarly to his Devotional Reflec- 
tions. ' They are beautiful and striking, though undesigned 
pictures of his pious and benevolent heart.' They are the de- 
vout aspirations of a soul breathing after God and heaven, and 
the salvation of mankind — We beg leave to add, that we con- 
sider it as a most valuable book for those who lead family de- 
votion ; every important fact, doctrine, or precept, being made 
the ground and matter of prayer ; and that in such a style, as 
to be an excellent model of devotion, either to ministers or 
private Christians." Evan. Mag. vol. 19. p. 269. 

" Guyse's Practical Expositor, or an Exposition of the New 
Testament, in the form of a Paraphrase with occasional Notes, 
smd serious Reflections at the end of each chapter, 3 vols, 4to, 


and 6 vols. 8vo. Dr. Guvse has shown his solid j ,^ e \ VVith 
learning; and without any affectation and needlt \ l0 \ e New 
criticism, has given the reader as full a view of th coun ^ f 
the best interpreters, and as comprehensive an insight rf . n0 * 
scope and meaning of the New Testament, as is likel) . 
haps, to be met with in the same compass of words." ( , ^ 
mus Middleton's Biograph. Evan.) " Guyse's Paraphrase 
is deservedly held in high estimation, for sound doctrine, fair 
explication, and just sentiment." (Buck's Theol Diet.) " If 
this work," says Dr. E. Williams, " has not an air of elegant 
criticism and modern refinement, like Doddridge's Family 
Expositor, it is very sound and judicious ; expressed in a 3tyle 
significant, perspicuous, and correct, though not ornamented." 

Hardy's Greek Testament, " With a great variety of useful 
Notes, chiefly extracted from Poole's Synopsis. The work is 
in 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1768 ; and is a very useful companion to 
every biblical student. It has gone through two editions, the 
first of which is the best ; but it must be acknowledged, that 
the Greek Text in both is inexcusably incorrect." Dr. A. 

"Dr. Henry Hammond is celebrated orer Europe, as a 
very learned and judicious divine. He wrote an extensive 
Comment on the Psalms, first published in 1659, and on the 
whole of th^g J\*ew Testament, in 1653. In this latter Work, 
he imagjpes he sees the Gnostics every where pointed at ; and 
be uses them as a universal menstruum to dissolve all the diffi- 
culties in the Text." (Dr. A. Clarke.) "Hammond is in 
great and growing reputation ; there are indeed many good 
criticisms» but many that are much mistaken. He finds the 
Gnostics every where, which is his principal fault. Many of 
he Clerc's animadversions upon those places are very good ; 
and his edition of this book in Latin, I think much preferable 
t o the original." (Dr. Doddridge.) " Hammond," says Dr. 
E. Williams, " excels in learned criticism (to be read cum 
grano satis") 


ion • f^ ic ^ ew Testament is a collection orNotes chiefiy 
— the r w s \ n rrh which the author gathered in the course of his 
so fre 30sitor they are not very judiciously chosen, but there are 
Ap r »• • .rticulars in them which are to be met with no where 
> i. of T at least in authors we shall never consult : and there- 
p, .ire worth the little money they cost." Dr. Doddridge. 

"In 1693-4, Father Quesnel, published in French at Bras-* 
sels, «Moral Reflections on the New Testament, in 8 vols 12mo> 
The Author was a man of deep piety ; and were it not for the 
rigid Jansenian predestinarianism which it contains, it would, 
as a Spiritual Comment, be invaluable. The work was trans- 
lated into English by the Rev. E. Russel, and published in 4, 
vol. 8vo Lond. 1719, &c. In this work the reader must not 
expect any elucidation of the difficulties, or indeed of the text 
of the New Testament ; the design of Father Quesnel is to 
draw spiritual uses from his text and apply them to moral pur- 
poses." Dr. A. Clarke. 

" Wells (Dr. Edward,) published a very useful Testament 
in Greek and English, in several parcels, with Notes, from 
1709 to 1719 ; in which, 1. The Greek Text is amended, ac- 
cording to the best and most ancient Readings. 2. The com- 
mon English Translation rendered more agreeable to the Ori- 
ginal. 3. A Paraphrase explaining the difficult expressions, 
design of the Sacred Writer, &c, 4. Short Annotations. Thi3 
is a judicious useful work." Dr. A. Clarke. 

'• Of merely critical Comments on the Greek Testament^ 
the most valuable is that of J. James Wetstein. 2 vol. fol. 
Amst. 1751-2. Almost every peculiar form of speech in the 
Sacred Text, he has illustrated by quotations from Jewish, 
Greek and Roman writers." Dr. A. Clarke. 

Whitby's Paraphrase and Commentary, 2 vol, 4to. 10th 
edition, is usually connected with Patrick and Lowth, to 
form a complete exposition of the whole Scriptares. " Whitby 
is learned, argumentative, and thoroughly orthodox.~~T)\z 
best Comment on the New Test! 


view is certainly that of Whiiby." (Dr. A, Clarke.) With 
this judgment Dr. Doddridge coincides—** On the whole New- 
Testament, Whitby is preferable to any other, on account of 
his learning and judicious notes on those texts which are not 
concerned in controversy with the Arminians ; for to them he 
is evidently partial and sometimes carries matters almost to ri- 
diculous extremes." 

Wolfii curae Philologies et Critiese, in Nov. Test. 4 vols. 
4to. Hamb. 1733-34; and 5 vols. Basil. 1741, "The latter is 
the best edition."— " This," says Dr. E. Williams, **is in a 
great measure a compilation, after the manner of Poole's Sy- 
nopsis ; but Wolfius does not simply relate the sentiments of 
others, but frequently animadverts on them with great critical 


S. Augustini Opera, Benedictin. 11 vols. fol. Paris, 1679 to 
1700. To this laborious and voluminous writer, we are in- 
debted for muoh valuable information on the Sacred Writings." 
Dr. A. Clarke. 

Calvini Opera omnia Theologica, Amstel. 1671 et ann. seqq, 
9 vols, fol* — ** Calvin has a multitude of judicious thoughts ; 
but they are generally intermingled with a great many that 
are little to the purpose. His worst volume, which is that on 
Job, is most scarce. His two best are, I think, that on the 
Pentateuch, and on the harmony of the Evangelists." (Dr, 
Doddridge.) **He is, in general, a very able judicious expo- 
sitor ; his method, perspicuous ; his manner, popular ; with a 
style pure and pleasing." Dr. E. Williams. 

Chry80stomi Opera, Edit. Benedictin. Montfaucon, 13 vols, 
Gr. et. Lat. fol. Paris, 1718, 1738. "The best edition."— 
"Chrysostom is well known and justly celebrated for his 
learning, skill, and eloquence, in his Homilies on the Sacred 
Writings, particular^ the psalms," fDr A. Clarke.) •? AH 


his discourse tends to persuasion; he placed every thing in 
judgment ; and was well acquainted with the Holy Scriptures 
and the manners of men. He entered into their hearts, and 
rendered things familiarly sensible to them. He had sublime 
and solid notions, and is sometimes very affecting." Archbishop 

De Dieu Critica Sacra, sive Animadversiones in loca quae- 
dam difficiliora Vet. et Nov. Test. — Suffixa est Apocalypsis 
Syriaca quam ante aliquot annos ex M. S. Josephi Scaligeri 
auctor primus edidit, versione Latina Notisque illustravit. 
Amstel. 1693, fol. "De Dieu wrote Animadversions on the 
Old and New Testament, in which are many valuable things**» 
— C4 Perhaps no man possessed a more consummate knowledge 
of the Oriental languages, nor employed his knowledge to more 
useful purposes." Dr. A. Clatke. 

Drusius (John) was an able Commentator; he penetrated 
the literal sense of Scripture : and in his animadversions, 
Hebrew Questions, Explanations of Proverbs, and Observa- 
tions on the Rites and Customs of the Jew9, he has cast much 
light on many parts of the Sacred Writings." (Dr A. Clarke.) 
The Comments of Drusius are in the Critici Sacri, which will 
presently come under our notice. 

Lightfoot's Works, 2 large vols. foi. 1684. They "contain" a 
chronicle of the times, and the order of the text of the Old 
Testament; the harmony, chronicle, and order of the New ; 
the harmony of the four Evangelists among themselves ; a 
commentary on the Acts ; Horse Hebraic», &c. on the four 
Evangelists, the Acts, and the first epistle to the Corinthians. 
Most of this author's remarks are deeply critical and curious." 
(Dr. E. Williams.) u He was a profound scholar, a sound di- 
vine, and a pious man. He brought all his immense learning 
to bear on the Sacred Volumes, and diffused light wherever 
he went. His Historical, Chronological, and Topographical 
Remarks on the Old Testament, and his Talmudical Exerci- 
tstions on the New*; are invaluable*" (Dr. A. Clarke.) " He 


has collected a multitude of Useful and excellent illustrations 
of Scriptures from the Talmud and other Jewish -writings. 
He has also shown the force of many others, especially in his 
Harmony. But he rather illustrates particular texts well, 
than gives a good account of the series of a discourse. And he 
seems tome very often mistaken in his dates, and in whathe says 
on the occasion particularly in many of the Psalms." Dr. 

" On the Plan of Lightfoot*s Horse Hebraic»;, a work was 
undertaken by Christian Schoettgenius with the title, Horie 
Hebraic» et Talmudicse in universum Novum Testamentum, 
quibus horse Jo. Lightfooti in Libris Historicis supplentur Epis- 
tolae et Apocalypsis eodem modo illustrantur, &c. Dresdse, 
1733, 2 vols. 4to. The Horre Hebraic» of Lightfoot extend no 
farther than the First Epistle to the Corinthians : the work of 
Schoettgen passes over the same ground as a Supplement, 
without touching the things already produced in the English 
work ; and then continues the work on the same plan to the 
end of the New Testament. It is both scarce and dear." Dr. 
A. Clarke. 

"Newton (Bishop) on the Prophecies, 2 vols. Svo. 1793, 
treats on many prophetic parts of the Old and New Testa- 
ment, with great labour, perspicuity, and judgment; but 
without many original thoughts." Dr. E. Williams. 

S. Origenis Commentaria, a P. Dan. Huetio, Gr. et Lat. fol. 
Roth. 1668. M A good edition of what remains of the Com- 
mentaries of Origen ; rendered still more valuable by the 
learned Preface of Huet. — Origen occupies a distinguished 
place among the Primitive Fathers and Doctors. He wrote 
much on the Scriptures :. his principal works are unfortunately 
lost ; many of his Homilies still remain, but they are so replete 
with metaphorical and fanciful interpretations of the Sacred 
Text, that there is much reason to believe they have been 
corrupted since his time. (Dr. A. Clarke.) 
Of this writer there are extant in Greek, parts of Comment 


taries on Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Joshua, 1 Samuel, Psalms, 
Canticles, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, in the Old Testament 5 
and on Matthew. John, Acts, Romans, and Hebrews, in the 
New. In Latin, besides his Homilies on different parts of 
Scripture, we have three Books of Commentaries, and Scholia 
on the Book of Job. 


*.' Perhaps the most ancient Comments containing merely- 
verbal glosses, were the Chaldee Paraphrases or Targums, 
particularly those of Onkelos on the Law, and Jonathan on the 
Prophets." See Note (?/) Chap. I. Part. I. 

•«The Commentaries of Aben Ezra, a justly celebrated 
Spanish Rabbin» are deservedly esteemed both by Jews and 
Gentiles." u Rabbi Maimonides also ranks high among the 
Jewish Commentators : his work entitled Moreh Nebochim is 
a very excellent illustration of some of the most difficult words 
and things in the Sacred Writings. — Rabbi Kirachi wrote a 
very useful Comment on most books of the Old Testament: 
his Comment on Isaiah is peculiarly excellent. — Rabbi Levi 
ben Gershom wrote some esteemed Comments on different 
parts of Scripture. These with some others are printed in 
the second edition of Bomberg*s Great Bible, Venice, 1547, 
&e. 2 vols. fol. the most useful, and the most valuable Hebrew 
Bible ever published." Dr. A. Clarke. 

The Oral Law of the Jews, called the Mischnah, "is a pre- 
tended Comment on the five books of Moses."— Mischna» 
sive totius Hebrseorum Juris, Rituum, Antiquitatum, ac Legum 
Oralium Systema, Heb. et Lat. cum Commentariis Maimoni- 
dis, Bartenorse, et aliorum. Interprete, Editore, et Notatore, 
Guil. Surenhusio, Amst. 1698, 6 vols. fol. "This is a very 
beautiful, correct, and well-edited work, necessary to the li- 
brary of every biblical critic and divine. He who has it, need 


be solicitious for nothing more on this subject." Dr. A. 

The Talmud, is a Comment on the Mischnah, as the 
Mischnah is upon the Law. Of these, there are two, the Je- 
rusalem and the Babylonish Talmud : the former was printed 
fol. Ven. Dan, Romberg, sine anno, sed circa 1523 ; and the 
latter, with Comments by Jarchi, &c. Ven. D. Bomberg. fol. 
1520, 12 vols. 

*■ Ainsworth on the Pentateuch, Psalms, and Solomon's 
Songs (fol. 1639.) is a good book, full of very valuable Jewish 
learning ; and his translation is, in many places, to be pre- 
ferred to our own ; especially on the Psalms." (Dr. Dod- 
dridge.) " He was an excellent Hebrew Scholar, and made a 
very judicious use of his Rabinical learning in his comment, 
especially on the five books of Moses." Dr. A. Clarke, 

Amesii Lectiones in omnes Psalmos Davidis, 8vo. Amstel. 
1636, is valuable " for its conciseness, accurate method, and 
very judicious observations ; ' opus omnibus, qui pietatem co- 
lunt, ac imprimis verbi ministris, perutile.' " Dr. E. Wil- 

Blayney's (Dr. Benj.) Translation of Jeremiah and Lamen- 
tions, with Notes critical, philological, and explanatory, 4to. 
1804, and 8vo. Edinb. 1810. Dr. E. Williams, speaking of 
this, and the similar works of Lowth and Newcome, says, 
" they are of the same nature, and may be consulted with 
considerable advantage, as they include a new translation, and 
critical notes." — " The present author follows the plan of the 
great Prelate (Bishop Lowth,) and though not with equal 
success, yet with much credit both as a translator and a critic. 
The translation is in general very exact, and preserves the 
tone and majesty of sacred writing. The various readings are 
noticed with the most scrupulous exactness : critical emenda- 
tion is sometimes hazarded, but not rashly or injudiciously. 
The preliminary discourse bespeaks the indulgence of the 
candid reader, in such a manner as would not fail procuring 



it, even though the work for which it is solicited were less en« 
titled to it than it is," Month. Rev vol. 71. p. 162. 

Blayney's (Dr. Benj.) Translation of Zechariah, with Notes 
critical, philological, and explanatory, 4to. 1797, " We think 
it our duty to say, that Dr. Blayney has produced a valuable 
illustration of Zechariah, and afforded great assistance to the 
Biblical student." Brit. Crit. vol. 13. p. 655. 

"Burkius (Phil. David) published a Commentary on the 
same plan as Bengel's Gnomon Nov. Test, and with precisely 
the same title, on the twelve minor Prophets, 4to. Heilbron- 
nae, 1753, which was followed by his Gnomon Psalmomm, 2 
vol. 4to. Stutgardiae, 1760. These are, in many respects, 
valuable works, written in a pure strain of piety, but rather 
too much in a technical form." Dr. A. Clarke. 

" Burroughs on Hosea, 4to. Lond. 1652, is a pleasing speci- 
men, to show how the popular preachers of his time applied 
the Scriptures to the various cases of their hearers, in their 
expository exercises." Dr. E. Wiliiams. 

" Caryl's Exposition, with practical observations upon the 
book of Job, 2 vols. fol. Lond. 1776, is a most elaborate, 
learned, judicious, and pious work ; containing a rich fund of 
critical and practical divinity." (Dr. E. Williams.) Caryl's 
Exposition of the book of Job, another by Scbultens, and a 
third by Chapelowe, on the same book, contain a vast deal of 
important matter delivered in general, by the two latter, in 
the dullest and most uninteresting form." Dr. A. Clarke. 

Dickson's brief Explication of the Psalms, 12mo. 1653, is 
distinguished "for the justness and fertility of its observations." 
Dr. E. Williams. 

Franks' (cf Halifax) Sacred Literature, or Remarks on the 
look of Genesis; &c. Svo. 1302. " We think that Mr. F. by 
his selections, has added considerably to the helps for explain- 
ing the Sacred Writings, and that his book may be very ser- 
viceable to those whose office it is to inculcate the knowledge 
P f fi.o Scriptures, ^of only <*s it may assist them t o snrmoturt 

a O i E3 BY THE THAN SLA 1 OR, 2*7 

some difficulties, but likewise as it may serve to point out to 
them, some useful topics of instruction to be drawn from dif- 
ferent texts." Christian Observer. 

Fuller's (And.) Expository Discourses, interspersed with 
Practical reflections, 2 vols. 8vo. 180G. " The author selects 
a paragraph of convenient length, and furnishes a concise ex- 
position of its leading circumstances, accompanied with a few 
practical reflections, and occasionally with a useful criticism.— 
Much originality of critical remarks must not be expected ; but 
we will venture to promise, much more frequently, a manly, 
judicious, and useful train of observations, expressed in simple 
and vigorous language." (Eel. Rev. vol. ii. p. 896.) " There 
is a remarkable unity of design and perspicuity of style, which 
pervade the whole.— Many of the suggestions are new, yet 
they are so natural and obvious, that the reader wonders they 
have not occurred to him before. Mr. Fuller has often the 
happy talent of elucidating a passage by a single hint. We think 
also he excels in delineating characters, and dissecting the 
human heart ; particular instances of which occur in his expo- 
sition of the history of Joseph and his brethren." Evan. Mag 
June, 1806. 

Goode's (John Mason) Translation of the Song of Songs, 
with notes critical and explanatory. 8vo. 1 803, " Were we 
insensible to the merits of this truly elegant and classical pro- 
duction, we should lie open to an impeachment of our taste." 
(Month. Rev.) " The arrangement is new and ingenious — 
the translation faithful and elegant — the poetical version is for 
the most part, correct and beautiful — the notes are full of 
learning and good taste." Ann. Rev. vol. 2, p. 120. 

"Greenham on Psalm 119, in his works fol. Lond. 1681, is 
admirable, for the time in which it was written, both for mo» 
thod and style ; and, like all the productions of this author, is 
foil of spiritual unction." Dr. E. Williams. 

Gill's, (l)r, John) Exposition of the Canticles $ wherein, the 


authority of it is established ; several versions are compared 
with the original text ; the different senses both of Jewish and 
Christian interpreters considered ; and the whole opened and 
explained." 4th edit. 2 vols. 8vo. 1805. " This work, and 
Harmer's Oatlines of a new Commentary on Solomon's Song, 
8vo. Lond. 1768, are a perfect contrast in their design and 
execution. The former is a minute detail on the allegorical 
sense, and a spiritual improvement ; the latter consists of re- 
marks, observations, and queries, with a view to ascertain the 
literal meaning." Dr. E. Williams. 

" Hammond's Paraphrase and Annotations on the Psalms, 
fol. Lond. 1659, is of use chiefly for its critical hints." Dr. E. 

Hildersbam's 152 Lectures on Fsalm 51, fol. Lond. 1635, 
are a rich mine of experimental and practical divinity." 

Hopkins' (Wm.) Exodus : a corrected Translation, with 
Notes critical and explanatory ; 4to. 1784. " The translator 
hath in general executed his task with fidelity, and, where it 
could be done with propriety (or where the reading of the 
Samaritan • copy would permit it,) he 'hath adopted (he 
says) the English vulgar translation, in order to prevent any 
prejudices that might he infused into the minds of the com- 
mon people by uncharitable bigots.' " Month. Rev. vol. 72. 
p. 412. 

Horseley's (Bp.) Translation of Hosea ; with Notes expla- 
natory and critical. ({ This translation, with its notes, forms 
a most valuable accession to sacred learning ; and evinces at 
once the best qualities of the scholar and the divine, supported 
by sagacity and a powerful judgment." Brit. Crit vol. ID, 
p. 78. 

Hodgson's (Dr. Bernard) Translation of Solomon's Song, 
4to. 1785. " Dr. Hodgson enters into no disputes concerning 
the mystical sense in which the poem has been interpreted ; he 
X>urposely avoids them. Dr. K. has translated the poem with 
correctness and propriety. The simplicity of the ancient man- 


Eiers is preserved, while in many passages the sense is eluci- 
dated, and the connexion pointed out hy recurring to the ori- 
ginal. In the notes, the translator has explained the reasons 
of his variations from the common translations ; he has ad- 
duced also parallel passages from ancient authors." Crit. Rev. 
vol. 62. p. 424. 

Hodgson's (Dr. Bernard) Translation of the Proverbs of 
Solomon, with Notes, 4to. Oxon. 1788. 

Hodgson's (Dr. B.) Translation of Ecclesiastes. 1790. 

Home's Commentary on the Book of Psalms, 2 vols. Svo.2 
vols. 4to. Oxon. 1776, and 3 vols. 12mo. " The notes," says 
Br. A. Clarke, " breathe a spirit of the purest and most ex- 
alted piety." 

•■ Houbigantii Biblia Hebraic», cum Notis criticis, et Ver- 
sione Latina ad Notas criticas facta ; accedunt libri Grseci qui 
vocantur Deutero-Canonici. Lut. Parisiorum, 1753, 4 torn, 
fol. " This is a work of great importance to the biblical critic, 
Father Houbigant has corrected and reformed the present He* 
brew text, according to the Sarmaritan, Syriac, Chaldee, Sep- 
tuagint, ancient editions of the Hebrew Bible, and ancient 
Hebrew M. S. S. His Latin version is allowed to be clear, 
elegant, and energetic. Each book is preceded by a learned 
and judicious preface, and the critical notes are both judicious 
and concise. — M He was a consummate Hebraician and an ac- 
curate critic : even his conjectural emendations of the Text 
cast much light on many obscure passages ; and not a few of 
them have been confirmed by the M. S. collections of Ken- 
nioott and De Rossi." " Some have indeed supposed, that he 
lias indulged himself in conjectural criticism too far, white 
others think he has restrained himself within due bounds; but, 
on all hands, his labours are allowed to be invaluable." Dr. 
A. Clarke. ' 

" Hutcheson's Brief Exposition on the Smaller Prophets. 
i2mo. Lond. 1655, deserves the same character as the author's 
other work on Job." Dr. E. Williams. 

u Hutchinson's F.vposition of the hook of Job. fol. T<ono\ 


1669, "is the sum of above 300 expository lectures, preached 
at Edinburgh, and a work of considerable merit. His method 
is perspicuous, and his observations founded on the text are ju- 
dicious and profitable." Dr. E. Williams. 

Lawson's Discourses on the book of Esther, &c. 12mo. 2d 
Edit. 1809. "Dr. L.'s great excellence consists in the abun- 
dance, variety, and justness of his sentiment ; in the unex- 
pected manner in which that sentiment is frequently intro- 
duced ; and in the conciseness of his illustrations, remarkable 
artlessness of manner, unaffected earnestness, piety, and 
benevolence, which appear in every page, &c." Eel. Rcv> 
vol. 1. p. 684. 

Lawson's Lectures on the book of Ruth, &c. 12mo. 1805. 
(t This volume presents the same marked peculiarities with 
the Discourses of Esther, and confirms the author's title to the 
commendation we bestowed. A large fund of sentiment» 
naturally drawn from the subject and happily applied ; 
language perfectly unadorned, but sufficiently expressive ; 
earnestness to produce the best impressions, and to turn every 
thing to a practical use, appear in every page. Dr. L. enters 
fully into the spirit of the subject which he discusses, and ap- 
pears susceptible of all that tenderness and unaffected benevo- 
lence which this beautiful portion of history so admirably de- 
scribes." Eel. Rev. vol. 3, p. 479. 

Lowth's (Bp.) Isaiah ; with a preliminary Dissertation ; and 
Notes critical, philological and explanatory. 2 vols. 8vo. 1807. 
"The preliminary Dissertation contains a fund of rare and 
judicious criticism. The translation formed by the assistance 
of the ancient Versions, collated with the best M. S. S. of the 
Hebrew Text, is clear, simple, and yet dignified. The con- 
cluding Notes, which always show a profound knowledge of He° 
brew criticism, are always judicious, and generally useful." 
Dr. A. Clarke. 

Macculloch's Lectures on the prophecies of Isaiah, 4 vol. 
8vo. "The author has stated with plainness what has ap^ 
peared to him the precise mea'ninpr of hfe text, and, in genera^ 


his judgments concerning it seems to be correct." Religious 
Monitor, 1805. 

Macgowan's Discourses on Ruth, §vo. Lond. 1781. — Dr. E* 
Williams' List. 

" Manton on Psalm 119, is voluminous, in general judicious, 
plain, not very interesting in his manner, yet unaffected." Dr. 
E. Williams. 

" Mollerl Enarrationes Psalmorum Davidis, fol. Genevse, 
1619, form a judicious explication ; but the work is rather de- 
ficient in practical improvements." Dr. E. Williams. 

Newcomer's (Bishop) Translation of Ezekiel, 4to. ; and of 
the Minor Prophets, 8vo. 1809. " Newcome's translation 
ha3 learned Notes : it is a good work, but creeps slowly after 
its great predecessor, (Bp. Lowth's Isaiah.") Dr. A. Clarke. 

" Newton's (Sir Isaac) Observations upon the Prophecies 
of Daniel, 4to. Lond. 1733, contain some very valuable hints." 
Dr. E. Williams. 

"Owen's Practical Exposition on Psalm 130, 4to. Lond. 
1G80, and since in 8vo. is a most excellent work on repentance 
and forgiveness, and enters deeply into several parts of expe- 
rimental religion." (Dr. E. Williams.) " Owen's Exposition 
of the 130th Psalm is most excellent." Dr. Doddridge. 

Patrick's Comment, from Genesis to Canticles, 3 vols, 
u He has made use of many former writers, some Jewish and 
others Christian." (Dr. Doddridge.) Dr. W. Lowth's Com- 
mentary on all the Prophets, is usually added to this work to 
complete it; and Dr. A. Clarke, speaking of both these wri- 
ters, remarks, that they are always judicious and solid." 
" Lowth," says Dr. Doddridge, *' has compiled a judicious 
Commentary on the Prophets, from Isaiah to Malachi ; in 
which there are some good critical notes, and a fine collection 
of parallels." 

Percy's (Bp,) Translation of the Song of Solomon, with a 
Commentary and Annotations, 8vo. 1764, 

Scott's (the Dissenting Minister) book of Job, in English 
ferae ; translated from the original Hebrew ; with Remarks., 


historical, critical, and explanatory. 8vo. 2d edit. 1773. "Tins 
performance recommends itself to the public in a double ca- 
pacity ; as a translation of the book of Job, and as a learned 
and elaborate commentary on that valuable but difficult part 
of the Old Testament. The happiest translators of the poeti- 
cal parts of Scripture have not succeeded entirely to their 
wishes, so as to come up to the spirit and dignity of the origi- 
nal ; and therefore it is not a matter of surprise that this 
should be, in some measure, the case with Mr. Scott; more 
particularly as he has confined himself in general to a close 
and exact version of the book of Job. We do not mean here- 
by to derogate from Mr. Scott's merit, which is considerable 
He hath undoubtedly taken great pains to do justice to his au- 
thor. — The second view in which the work before us is to be 
considered, is as a Commentary ; and here it appears to no 
small advantage. Mr. Scott is well qualified for this part of 
the undertaking, by his great knowledge of the Oriental Lan- 
guages, his diligent study of the original, and his complete 
acquaintance with the best critics." Month. Rev. vol. 66, 
p. 555. 

Smith's (Miss Elizabeth) Translation of the Book of Job: 
with a Preface and Annotations by Dr. F. Randolph, 8vo 
1810. The learned Dr. Magee considers this work as " con- 
veying more of the true character and meaning of the He- 
brew, with fewer departures from the Idiom of the English^ 
than any other translation whatever that we possess."'— 4 ' Sc 
far," sajs Dr. Randolph, "as a diligent and accurate compa- 
rison of this translation, partially or wholly, with almost every 
other extant, at least with all I could procure or read,) may 
entitle me to make the assertion, 1 scruple not to pronounce 
it to be, upon the whole, more clear and satisfactory, more 
grammatically accurate, more closely expressive of the literal 
meaning, and (though preserving a native lustre of its own) 
more distinctly reflecting the brightness of its glorious original, 
than any which have fallen under my observation. 

Smith's (Dr, J.) Summary View and Explanation of the 


Writings of the Prophets. It contains, 1st, Preliminary Ob» 
servations and General Rules for understanding the Prophetic 
Style : 2d. A particular account of each Book and Chapter, 
as they lie in Order ; in which the style of each Prophet is 
characterized ; the beauty and sublimity of particular passages 
remarked ; the change of persons or speakers, the transition 
from one part of a subject to another, and the connexion and 
scope of the whole pointed out ; improvements on the transla- 
tion, where they seem to be of most consequence, taken no- 
tice of; with illustrations of the customs, manners, and cir- 
cumstances to which the Sacred Writers occasionally allude, 
and the application of their prophecies to those events to which 
they are supposed to refer."-— " Such is the author's account 
of his own work, which was originally compiled to accompany 
a Gaelic translation of the Prophetic Writings, and was after- 
wards translated into English by the author himself; in which 
we conceive he has rendered an essential service to those who 
cannot purchase, or perhaps fully understand, the learned and 
expensive volumes of Bishops Lowth, Blayney, Newcome, 
Newton, Dr. Kennicott, and others, to which he freely ac- 
knowledges his obligations, and of which the small volume be- 
fore us may be considered as a judicious and valuable compen- 
dium. Evan. Mag vol. 13. p. 319. 

" Stock's Commentary and Torshell's Exercitation on Ma- 
lachi, fol. Lond. 1641, is a work recommended by Bishop Wil- 
kins as the best ; but the matter is much better than the man- 
ner." Dr. E. Williams. 

Venema (Herman) is known only to me by a Comment on 
Malachi — and a most excellent and extensive Commentary on 
the Psalms, in C vols. 4to. Leovardiae, 1762-7. Through its 
great scarcity, the work is little known in great Britain. What 
was said by David of Goliah's sword, has been said of Vene- 
ma's Commentary on the Book of Psalms ; "There is none 
like it." Dr. A.Clarke. 



Vitringx Commentarius in librum prophetiarum Iesaise, 
2 vols. fol. « The best edition of which was printed in 1724. 
" A learned and most excellent Commentary." Dr. A. Clarke. 

Williams' Translation of Solomon's Song, with a Commeiv 
tary, Notes, and Dissertations, 8vo, 1801. " Of the translation, 
the author will only say, that it has been written several years, 
and repeatedly revised, with every assistance that conld be 
derived from books or literary friends. The critical Note? 
are selected from Ainsworth, Bochart, Durell, Doderlein, Gill, 
Gray, Karmer, Hodgson, Lowth, Michaelis, Parkhurst, Pat- 
rick, Percy, Poole, and others, with some originals ; and are 
intended with as much brevity as possible to justify the new 
translation ; and to ascertain the literal sense and exact im- 
port of the figurative language ; in order to which, particular 
attention has been paid to the use of similar images in the 
Eastern poets. The Commentary is on a new plan ; instead 
of taking every verse, or distinct member of the verse, sepa- 
rately, as has been usually done, the author takes it in con« 
nected paragraphs, presents whole images, (not broken and 
detached pieces) to the reader's view, and then endeavours 
to improve them by a chaste and scriptural application of 
the allegory to diviue and spiritual objects. — The Disserta- 
tions have two principal objects : f. To trace, from the origin 
of language itself, the use of metaphorical terms, and thence 
the rise of poetry and allegory, which will introduce remarks 
on the nature of the Hebrew language, poetry, and music. 2. 
The object is to examine the nature and design of Solomon's 
Song, and more particularly to vindicate its divine authority 
and allegorical application, as well against the objections of 
the learned, as of the illiterate." — f Mr T. Williams' work 
is a great improvement on similar attempts." Dr. E. Wil- 

" Willet's Hexapla on Daniel, fol. 1610, is a work of much 
information, as it contains the opinions of many authors on 
eaefc point of difficulty, Thb author has written comments 


on Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Samuel, Romans, Jude, and 
some detached parts of books : but in none does he discover 
more skill and judgment than in the present work." Dr. E. 

Wintle's Translation of the Book of Daniel ; with a preli- 
minary Dissertation, and Notes critical, historical, and expla- 
natory, 2d edit. 4to. 1807. 


n Anselmi Commentaria in Evangelia in omnes Pauli Epis- 
tolas, &c. fol. 1560, (if you except some of his catholic notions, 
and his allegorical and mystical paragraphs) will afford plea- 
sure and improvement." Dr. E. Williams. 

Blair's (Jas ) Discourses on Matt. v. — vii. u A man of 
plain good sense. A beautiful simplicity and great seriousness 
run through all his writings. A desire to spare all unneces- 
sary words is very apparent. His Commentary on Matt, v.— 
vii. is the best extant. He has some excellent and striking si- 
milies which are chiefly taken from the affairs of the slaves, 
planters, or foreign colonies. He suggests a multitude of ex- 
cellent things which he does not prosecute at large. He has 
an excellent way of bringing down criticisms to common ca- 
pacities; and has discovered a vast knowledge of Scripture in 
the suitable application of them.' 5 ' Dr. Doidridge. 

Brewster's Lectures on the Acts of the Apostles ; illustra- 
ted with Maps, 2 vols. 1807. "The facts and events are nar- 
rated in a manner well suited to engage the attention of the 
congregation, to whom he delivered them. — The reflections 
which he liberally intersperses, arise naturally from the sub- 
ject ; they might sometimes have been more explicit in point 
of doctrine, but they are calculated to impress the history ef- 
fectually on the mind, and to render that impression benefi- 
cial. There is little criticism in the work. EcL Rev. vol. 3* 
p. 408. 


"Burgess* Expository Sermons on John xvii. fol. Lond. 
1056, are full of sound doctrine, methodically arranged, and 
closely applied in very plain language." Dr. E. Williams. 

"Burgess* Expository Comment on 2 Cor. i. fol. Loud. 
1661, deserves the same character as bis woik on John xvii." 
Dr. E. Williams. 

" Byfield on the Epistle to the Colossians, fol. Lond. 1627, 
is full of good sense and spiritual savour, and abounds with 
pertinent citations of Scripture, without any pretensions to 
oratorical dress." Dr. E. Williams. 

Campbell's translation of the four Gospels, with prelimina- 
ry Dissertations, and Notes critical and explanatory. " The 
distinctions of chapters and verses are retained in the margin, 
for the sake of references. The new division is into sections 
and paragraphs ; each section is, on an average, equal to two 
chapters, and each paragraph is determined by the sense. 
The elliptical words supplied, are included in crotchets, and 
the narrative is distinguished from the interlocutory parts by 
Italics, for reasons which do not on the whole, we think, even 
counterbalance the bad effects of its appearance. In the side 
margin, besides the old division, into chapters and verses, the 
parallel passages in Scripture are added : at the foot of the 
pages are the short explanations, which do not require criti- 
cism or argument, for notes of that kind are added at the end, 
and they are either explanatory or philological Scholastic 
disputes, and some peculiar delicate difficulties our author pur- 
poses to avoid." (Crit. Rev.) " I have revised the first eigh- 
teen chapters of Matthew, and am really astonished at the 
learning and accuracy of the author" (Dr. Beattie.) u It 
abounds in sound judgment, deep erudition, and a strong vein 
of correct critical acumen." Dr. A. Clarke. 

"Cradock's Apostolical History, fol. Lond. 1672, contains 
the acts, labours, travels, sermons, &c. of the Apostles ; with 
a brief analytical paraphrase of their epistles." Dr. E. Wil- 


u Davenant on Colossians, fol. Latin, is much esteemed." 
Dr. E. Williams. 

(i Daubuz's Perpetual Commentary on the Revelation, fol. 
Lond. 1720, is a most elaborate work, abounding with learned 
references and illustrath e quotations from the ample store of li- 
terature. This great work has been new-mod^iied and abridged 
by Mr. Lancaster, 4to. Lond. 1730." Dr. E. Williams. 

Dick's Lectures on parts of the first fifteen chapters of the 
Acts of the Apostles, 1805. f * Upon the whole, we cheerfully 
recommend the present volume to the attention of the public." 
Eel. Rev. vol. 2 p. 440. 

Ellesly's Annotations on the four Gospels, compiled and 
abridged for the use of students " \ltogether, we say, with- 
out the smallest reserve, we never saw a book more admira- 
bly adapted for the use of students, more creditable to an au- 
thor's sagacity, diligence, and erudition, or more likely to 
make the investigation of the New Testament easy and agree- 
able." Brit. Orit. vol. 16. p. 236. 

"Elton on Rom. vii — ix. fol Lond. 1653, is a work rich in 
matter, dressed in the plain and somewhat popular language 
of its day." Dr E. Williams. 

** Elton on the Colossians, fol. is nearly on the same plan as 
his work on Rom vii.— ix and of similar character." Dr. E. 

" Ferguson's Brief Expositions of the Epistle to the Gala- 
tians and Ephesians, 12mo Lond. 1659, abound with pertinent 
observations deduced from the text, considered in its proper 
connexion ; and in a method almost peculiar to the Scotch di- 
vines of the last century." Dr. E. Williams. 

" Gualtheri Horailise in Acra Apostolorum, 8vo, Lugduni, 
1562, contains 173 Homilies ; sound, methodical, and elegant." 
Dr. E. Williams. 

" Hall's Commentary on 2 Tim. fol. Lond 1658, is recom- 
mended by Calamy, whose imprimatur it bears, as ' both ela- 
borate and judicious.' He was minister of King's Norton, ia 


Worcestershire ; and Dr. Calamy adds, that this c Commenta- 
ry is the sum of nigh 30 years' study." Dr. E. Williams. 

" Hardy on 1 John, 4to. Lond. 1656, is an unequal work ; 
but the author, in some places, discovers a superior degree of 
penetration. The same character may be given to his Expo- 
sition of the Epistle to Philemon." Dr. E. Williams. 

Hawkins* (Thos.) Commentary on the Epistles of St. John, 
8vo. 1808. "The author acknowledges he had no intention 
of writing for scholars ; but seems to have engaged in this un- 
dertaking with the very laudable design of promoting among 
real Christians, a devout feeling of love to God, and a spirit of 
mutual sympathy, forgiveness, and benevolence. His doc- 
trinal views are Calvinistie ; but not chargeable with Antino- 
mian perversion." Eel. Rev. vol. 5. p. 846. 

Hildersham's Lectures on John iv. fol. Lond. 1632, discover 
the author to be a sound divine, an admirable textuary, a pro- 
foundly experienced Christian, and an excellent teacher," Dr, 
B. Williams. 

Johnstone's (Dr. Bryce) Commentary on the Revelation of 
St. John, 2d edit. 2 vols. 8vo. 1807. " It is a work well cal- 
culated for general use, being written with great perspicuity, 
and in a popular, practical strain." Dr. E. Williams. 

Leighton's Commentary on the first epistle of St. Peter, 
with the Prelections. 2 vols. 8vo. 1 804. " These," says Dr. 
E. Williams, M are productions of uncommon worth: all this 
author's works are full of holy simplicity, humility, and bene- 
volent zeal." — " As to Archbishop Leighton, besides his se- 
lect works there are two octavo volumes published at Edin* 
burgh, in 1748, and since reprinted at London. They contain 
a valuable Commentary on St. Peter's First Epistle, and Lec- 
tures on Isa, vi. Psal. xxxix., exxx., iv., and a part of Rom. 
xii. He has wonderfully united the simplicity of the gospel, 
with all the captivating beauties of style and language. Bishop 
Burnet says, he was the greatest master of the Latin tongue 
he ever knev, of which, together with his compass of learn» 


iiig, he has given proof in his Lectures : yet in his gayer dress^ 
his eminent humility and spirituality appear to no less advan- 
tage than when clad in plain English. I think his Preelections 
may be said to be a diamond set in gold. I could wish them 
translated, if it were possible, (which I should almost ques- 
tion,) to preserve the beauty and spirit of the original." New- 
ton's Cardiphonia, vol. 2. p. 114. — " His works ought to be reck- 
oned among the greatest treasures of the English tongue: 
they continually overflow with love to God, and breathe a 
heart entirely transformed by the gospel above the views of 
every thing but pleasing God. There is a vast deal of spirit 
and charming imagination, multitudes of the most beautiful 
figures, and Scriptures applied with happiest allusions ; upon 
the whole they are such as none but a very ingenious, learned, 
religious man could write, and yet even by such a one must 
have been written with great care ; — not the effect of any la- 
borious efforts for particular discourses, but the guarded over- 
flowing of a copious fountain." Dr. Doddridge. 

Lowman's Paraphrase and Notes on the Revelation of St, 
John, 4th edit. 8vo. 1307. "Bishops Hurd, Halifax, Clayton, 
and others, have written with ability upon these abstruse parts 
of sacred Writ. Dr. Arpthorp, Maclaurin, and Brown, have 
thrown pretty much light upon them. But of all who have 
treated upon the book of Revelation, none seem to me to have 
excelled Lowman." (Simpson's Plea.) (i I can with plea- 
sure refer my reader to the learned commentary on this book, 
lately published by the Rev. Mr. Lowman, from which I have 
received more satisfaction, with respect to many of its difficul- 
ties, than ever I found elsewhere, or expected to have found 
at all." Dr. Doddridge. 

Luther's Commentary on St. Paul's Epistle to the Galatian3 ? 
with life, 1 vol. 8vo. and 2 vols. 12mo. "Luther's Commen- 
tary on the Epistle to the Galatians was his favourite work. " 
(Jortin.) " It is a strong antidote against the popish notion 
of justifi c at ion by vorks" Dr, William?. 


Macknight's Harmony of the four Gospels, in which the 
order of each is preserved ; with a Paraphrase and Notes, 2 
toIs. 8vo. 1804. This and the following work are in the Bi- 
shop of Lincoln's list. " It has long been a standard book 
among Divines." Rrit. Crit. 

Macknight's literal Translation of all the Apostolical Epis- 
tles ; with a Commentary and Notes, philological, critical, ex- 
planatory, and practical, " Dr. Macknight's luminous and 
valuable Commentary on the Apostolical Epistles is a work 
highly meriting a place in the library of every Chistian Di- 
vine." (Parkhurst.) Speaking of this in union with Dr. 
Campbell's Translation of the Gospels, Dr. A. Clarke says, 
— " They abound in sound judgment, deep erudition, and a 
strong vein of correct critical acumen." 

" Manton on John xvii. fol. is a sound and elaborate work ; 
and, to those who can improve excellent thoughts abstracted 
from modern modes of composition, a rich treasure." (Dr. 
E. Williams.) " Manton is plain, easy, and unaffected. His 
thoughts are generally well digested, but there is seldom any 
thing extraordinary. He has many judicious remarks on Scrip- 
ture. His chief work is on the 119th Psalm." Dr. Doddridge. 

" Manton's Exposition of James, 4to. Lond. is plain, solid, 
and practical." Dr. E. Williams. 

Markii Sylloge Dissertationum Philologico-Theologicaruro, 
ad Selectos quosdam textus Novi Testamenti, 4to. Rotter. 
1721, contains twenty-five learned Dissertations on select pas- 
sages, the most important, difficult, and controverted." Dr. 
E. Williams. 

" Mede's Clavis Apocalyptica, with his Comraentarius ad 
amussim Clavis Apocalypticse, included in his works, fol. 
Lond. 1672, 3d edit, has ever been considered as a rich mine, 
of which all subsequent learned commentators have made free 
and good use." (Dr. E. Williams.) " Mede has a good many 
original thoughts, not to be found any where else. His writings 
on the Revelations are peculiarly famous, but his Diatribe will 


best reward a diligent perusal ; yet here many mistakes will 
be found." Dr. Doddridge. 

cs Mitchell's New Exposition of the Revelation of St. John, 
gives a new translation from the original Greek, and professes 
to apply the events that have occurred to the letter and con- 
text of the prophecy', in a manner more satisfactory than has 
been done by former commentators." Dr. E. Williams. 

"Newton's (Sir Isaac) observations on the Apocalypse, 4to. 
Lond. 1735, being the second part of his Observations on Pro- 
phecies, is not an exposition so much as hints. * If I have 
done any thing which may be useful to following writers,' ob- 
serves this great man, 'I have my design. The folly of in- 
terpreters bus been to fortel times and things by this Prophe- 
cy, as if God designed to make them prophets. By this rash- 
ness, they have not only exposed themselves, but brought tfiV 
Prophecy also into contempt.' " Dr. E. Williams. 

Owen's Exposition of the Epistle to the Hebrews, with the 
Preliminary Exercitations. 4 vols. fol. " It is not easy to give 
a full account of the value and usefulness of this work : it is 
filled with a great variety of learning, particularly Rabbinical, 
which he has made serviceable to give light into the subject 
matter, chiefly treated of in this Epistle ; and withal he has 
taken care to adapt his exposition to the faith and comfort of 
Christians, and to recommend the practice of the substantial 
duties of religiqn ; so that it is hard to say whether the scholar 
or the divine shine the more brightly through this excellent 
work. Besides the exposition, there are very learned and ac- 
curate exercitations which serve to illustrate many difficult 
parts of Scripture." Dr. Erasmus Middleton. 

" Parr's Exposition of the Epistle to the Romans, fol. Lond. 
1651, is equally remarkable for soundness of sentiment, fami- 
liarity of illustration, and waut of taste in style and composi- 
tion." Dr. E. Williams. 

Pearce's (Bishop) Commentary and Notes on the Four 
Gospels, the Acts, and the first Epistle to the Corinthians, S 


vols. 4to. 1777. Dr. A. Clarke says— "The deep learning 
and judgment displayed in these notes, are really beyond all 
praise." — <c Locke, Pearce, and Benson make up a complete 
commentary on the Epistles ; and are indeed all in the num- 
ber of the most ingenious commentators I have ever read. 
They plainly thought very closely, and attended much to con- 
nexion, which they have often set in a most clear view. But 
they all err in too great a fondness for new interpretations, 
and in supposing the design of the apostle less general than it 
seems to have been. It must be allowed that Benson illus- 
trates the spirit of Paul sometimes in an admirable manner, 
even beyond any former writer. See especially his epistle to 
Philemon. His vast fondness for Lord Barrington's notions, 
has often proved a snare to him, both here and in his work on 
the Acts; which however is a very useful piece." (Dr. Dod- 
dridge.) " Mr. Locke and Dr. Benson are well known in the 
republic of letters : their respective works on different parts 
of the New Testament, abound with judgment and learning." 
Dr. A. Clarke. 

c< Perkin's Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians (in 
his works) is equally sound as Luther on this Epistle, but 
more methodical and comprehensive. Perkins has written 
Commentaries also on Matt. v. — vii Heb. xi. the Epistle of 
Jude; Rom. i. — Hi. all contained in his works, S vols. fol. Lond. 
1635." Dr.E. Williams. 

" Shepard's Exposition of Matt. xxv. i.— 13. The parable 
of the ten virgins, fol. Lond. 1660, &c. is a rich fund of expe- 
rimental and practical divinity ; the dress is coarse, but the 
strain of thought is extemely animated and searching." Dr. 
E. Williams. 

Stailord on Rom. vii. 8vo. and 12mo. enters very minutely 
into the Christian experience of sin and grace." Dr. E. Wil- 

" Taylors (Dr. Thomas) Commentary on Titus, fol. Lond. 
1058, is the production of a sound and sensible divine, and a 


very useful preacher, one who had penetrating views of the 
human heart and of the sacred oracles." Dr. E. Williams. 

Theophilacti opera, a J. F. Bern de Rubeis, et Bonif. Fi- 
nettio, Gr. et Lat. fol. Ven, 1754-63, 4 vols.— « Theophylact 
has written a valuable Comment on the Gospels, Acts, and St. 
Paul's Epistles." — * They are chiefly extracts from Chrysos- 
tom, and are of considerable use, because of the Greek text of 
the New Testament quoted in them ; from which several im- 
portant various readings have been extracted." Dr. A. Clarke» 

Whitaker's Commentary on the Revelation of St. John, ac- 
companied with historical testimony of its accomplishment. 
8vo. 1802. " Mr. W. is well knovvn to the public, and his wri- 
tings will not be neglected." Brit. Crit. vol. xxiii. p. 251. 

" Wilson's Commentary on Romans, fol. Lond. 1653, is in 
the form of a Dialogue, and abounds with judicious distinctions 
and practical uses." Dr. E. Williams. 

Woodhouse's Translation of the Apocalypse, with Notes 
critical and explanatory ; with a Dissertation on the divine 
origin of the book, in answer to the objections of Professor 
Michaelis, kc. 8vo. 180G. "Our author has placed the text 
of the Apocalypse in three columns ; the Greek of Griesbach's 
edition of the New Testament, a translation of his own from 
it, and the common version. His translation is a very modest 
one, and does not depart from the common version, but when 
it appears necessary to the sense. The figurative language of 
the Revelation, Mr. W. has studied with deep attention, and 
expounded with accuracy and skill." (Eel. Rev. vol. 2. p. 922.) 
** This is the best book of the kind I have ever seen. It owes 
its superiority to two things : 1st. The author's understanding 
the apocalyptic symbols in a spiritual, not a literal sense. 
2dly. To the care he has taken to fix the precise import of 
those symbols, from the use made of them by the old prophe- 
tical, and other writers of the Old and New Testament" 
Bishop Hurd. 



Critici Sacri sive annotata doctissimorum in Vetus et Novum 
Testamentum, Londini, 1660, 9 vols. foi. and, with additions, 
Amst. 1698, 12 vols. fol. With this are connected a supple- 
ment, entitled, Thesaurus Theologo-Philologicus, sive Silloge 
Dissertationum elegantiorum ad selectiora Veteris ac Novi 
Testamenti loca, a Theologis Protestantibus conscripturum. 
Amst. 1701, 2 vols. fol. and Lud. Capelli Critica Sacra, ubi ex 
variarum lectionum observatione plurima Scripturse loca expli- 
cantur. Par. 1650 fol. The best edition of the Critici Sacri, 
according to the Bibliographical Dictionary, is 13 vols. Amst. 
1698. — "This work was intended as a companion for the Po- 
lyglott Bible published by Bishop Walton, in 1657. It con- 
tains a vast variety of valuable materials for Critics, Chronolo- 
gists, &c. 

u The principal Critics on the Old Testament, contained in 
the foreign Edition of this great Collection, which is by far 
the most complete, are the following : — Sebastian Munster, 
Paul Fagius, Francis Vatablus, Claudius Badwellus, Sebastian 
Castalio, Isidore Clarius, Lucas Brugensis, Andrew Masius, 
John Drusius, Sixtinus Amama, Simeon de Muis, Philip Co- 
durcus, Rodolph Raynus, Francis Forrerius, Edward Lively, 
David Hceschelius, Hugo Grotius, Christopher Cartwright, and 
John Pricseus. 

Besides the above, who are regular Commentators on the 
Old Testament, there are various important Dissertations and 
Tracts on the principal subjects in the Law and Prophets, by 
the following critics : — Joseph Scaliger, Lewis CapelluB, Mar- 
tin Helvicus, Alberic Gentilis, Moses bar Cepha, Christopher 
Helvicus, John Buteo, Matthew Hostus, Francis Moncseus, 
Peter Pithceus, George Rittershusius, Michael Rothardus, 
Leo Allatius, Gasper Varrerius, William Schickardus, Au- 
gustin Justinianus, Bened. Arias Montanus, Bon. Corn. Ber- 
tramus, Peter Cunceus, Caspar Waser. and Edward Brere- 


On the New Testament the following Commentators are 
included : — Sebastian Munster, Laurentius Valla, James Re- 
vius, Desiderius Erasmus, Francis Vatablus, Sebastian Casta- 
lio, Isidore Clarius, Andrew Masius, Nicolas Zegerus, Lucas 
Brugensis, Henry Stephens, John Drusius, Joseph Scaliger, 
Isaac Casaubon, John Camero, James Capellus, Lewis Cape- 
lius, Otho Gaultperius, Abraham Schultetus, Hugo Grotius, 
and John Pricceus. 

Dissertations on the most important subjects in the New 
Testament, inserted here, were written by Lewis Capellus, 
Nicolas Faber, William Klebilius, Marquard Freherus, Arch- 
bishop Usher, Matthew Hostus, I. A. Vander-Linden, Clau- 
dius Salma9ius under the feigned name of Johannes Simplicius* 
James Gothofridus, Philip Gordurcus, Abraham Schultetus, 
William Ader, John Drusius, Jac. Lopez Stunica, Desider. 
Erasmus, Angelus Caninius, Peter Pithceus, Nicephorus Pa- 
riarch of Constantinople, Adriani Isagoge cum notis Dav. Hces- 
chelii, B. C. Bertram, Anton. Nebrissensis, Nicholas Fuller, 
Samuel Petit, John Gregory, Christ. Cartwright, John Clop» 
penburg, and Peter Dan. Huet. The Thesaurus Dissertation- 
urn Elegantiorum, published as a Supplement to this Work, 
by Theod. Hasreus and Conrad Ikenius, in two volumes folio, 
contains upwards of one hundred and fifty additional writers. 
Such a constellation of learned men can scarcely be equalled 
in any age or country." Dr. A. Clarke. 

Poii Synopsis Criticorum aliorumque Sacrac Scripture In- 
terpretum. Lond. 5 vols. fol. 1669-1674. " Mr. Matthew 
Poole, conceiving that the Critici Sacri might be made more 
useful, by being methodized ; with immense labour formed 
the work well known among divines by the title of Synopsis 
Criticorum, a general view of the Critics : viz. those in the 
nine volumes of Critici Sacri. Here the Critics no longer oc- 
cupy distinct places as they do in the Critici Sacri, but are all 
consolidated, one general comment being made of the whole ; 
fhe names of the writers being referred to by their initials in 
2 „ -«.- 


the margin. To the Critics above-named, Mr. Poole has added 
several others of equal note, and he refers also to the most 
important Versions, both ancient and modern. In point of 
size, the work of Mr. Poole has many advantages over the 
Critici Sacri ; but no man who is acquainted with both works, 
will ever prefer the Synopsis to the original." (Dr. A. Clarke.) 
" Poole's Synopsis is very useful, especially on account of the 
short view it gives of various translations, some of which are 
very scarce. It in part supersedes the necessity of having, 
what is yet desirable, a Polyglott Bible." Dr. Doddridge. 

The Propriety of annexing a list of the most valuable Com- 
mentaries to a volume professing to be a Guide to the Study 
of the Scriptures, is immediately obvious. The Editor has 
cited, as well in this as in preceding notes, the opinion of able 
critics on the works pointed out ; except that, in a few in- 
stances where other sources failed, he has had recourse to re- 
spectable reviews. The reader will observe, that the larger 
proportion of critical remarks are not merely recommenda- 
tions (for which a few words had been sufficient) but were 
added, after the example of Dr. Doddridge in his fourteenth 
lecture, as calculated to form the mind to a more profitable 
mode of studv. 



(a) Augustini Opera, Benedictin. 11 vols. fol. Paris, 1679 to 
1700. — " Best edition. There are, however, two editions of 
this work under the same date. The first is preferred, and 
distinguished by the preface at the beginning of the first vo- 
lume. In the first edition, there are only Jive lines of the 
Preface on the first page ; in the second edition, there are 
more." Dr. A. Clarke. 

(b) See our author's Treatise — " Christ the Sum and Sub- 
stance of the Scriptures." 


(a) St It is not enough for the physician to inveigh against 
the malignity or danger of a disease, but his chief care must 
be to direct to the remedy and cure of it ; and for this, the pre-, 
scription must be varied according to the several kinds of of- 
fences. — It should be a special care, to apply lenitives and 
cordials, where the condition of the patient requires it, as well 
as corrosives and purgatives. 

"The matter of this should be various, according to the 
different states of men, whether their sufferings be Outward 
or Inward. Outward, in respect of sickness of body, loss 
cf friends, estate, credit, peace, and quiec, &c— IffWABDj ill 
respect of doubts &*v a Bishop Wilkins. 




(a) Of Franzius' Work here alluded to^tlie celebrated 
Glassius speaks in the following high terms, when treating of 
the best method of interpreting the Scriptures. " Ego sane 
nullum tempus felicius et fructuosius (prcesens quod negotum 
spectat,) collocasse me palam pronteor, quam quod in diligenti 
integri libri illius lectione et relectione, cam timore Domini, 
insumi. Deus viro tanto, pro tarn salubri labore, hie et seter- 
tum benedicat." 

(b) Bernardi Opera, a Joan. Mabillonio, JVIon. S. Mauri, 
fol, 1&90, 9 vols. «« Best edition." 


(a) Bona? (Johannes Cardinalis) Opera Omni2. Paris, 1677, 
S vols. 8vo. ex recognitione Reb. Sala, August. Taurin, e Ty- 
pographia Regia, 1747, fol. 


(a) " Paul has given us the substance of divine truth m » 
thivefold wav x*- 


* 1. In a catechetical manner: that is, by the mere arti- 
cles, without copious proofs and refutations ; as in the Epistle 
to the Ephesians. 2. By a fuller exposition, with arguments, 
refutations, &c added by way of explanation ; as in the Epis- 
tle to the Galatians. 3. By a complete consideration and ex- 
position of the several parts of doctrine, as in the Epistle to 
the Romans. These points merit attention, because, even 
subsequently to the days of the apostle, sometimes the shorter, 
and sometimes the more elaborate Epistles have been cited, 
accordingly as seasons and circumstances have required/' 
Chemnitius. Author's Note. 


(«) " It is probable that the apostle only dictated this Epis- 
tle. So we find that Tertius wrote the Epistle addressed to 
the Romans, Rom. xvi. 22. It appears that Paul himself only 
added the last words." Author** Note. 

(b) ** It was perhaps at this time that Onesimus carried 
Paul's letter to his maste*- Philemon ; Phil. 12 — 15, and CoL 
iv. 9 ; unless it be supposed that he was despatched to Phile- 
mon first, and afterwards to the Colossian church." Ibid.